Sindarin Phonetic Development (Part 29)


OS. voiceless stops aspirated after consonants except [s]; [{ptkmnŋlr}{ptk}] > [{ptkmnŋlr}{ptk}ʰ]

In both Old Sindarin and Old Noldorin, voiceless stops [p, t, k] developed into spirants medially after nearly every other primitive consonant, in particular: all liquids [r, l], all nasals [m, n, ŋ], all aspirates [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ] and all other voiced and voiceless stops [b, d, g, p, t, k], that is essentially everything but [s]. In the last two cases, the both stops in the pair both became spirants, with various later vocalic effects (see below).

Quenya Verbal Adjectives and Other Derivations

One of the most interesting and exciting aspects of establishing a NeoQuenya consensus is, to me, to determine which affixes attested in the Quenya corpus can be considered productive in the later Quneya stages and could be considered "safe" for use. PE22 has provided a lot of strong material with regards to that, especially the participial and verbal adjectival systems. It prompted me to start a sheet of PQ roots, their Quenya verbal derivations, the attested, and the potential verbal adjectives, frequentatives etc. of them, and the potential neologue glosses we could assign to them.

Sindarin Phonetic Development (Part 23)


OS. [z] vanished before [d] lengthening preceding vowel; [Vzd] > [V̄d]

In Sindarin and Noldorin, [z] disappeared before the voiced stop [d], modifying the preceding vowel, though the exact phonetic rules evolved between the conceptual stages of the language. For Sindarin, this change is described in a couple places within notes on the Outline of Phonology [OP2] from around 1950: