Warning

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I have been thinking about the verb "to warn". I feel that the attested or- (aorist ora "it warns") is too strongly connected to the idea of inner conscience, metaphorical heart, inner counsel to be used as an active verb outside of its usual impersonal conjugation - so sentences like Túro warned Marko that the water was deep are still not covered.

Sindarin Phonetic Development (Part 74)

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S. [ai], [oi] became [ae], [oe]; [ai|oi] > [ae|oe]

In Sindarin the diphthongs [ai] and [oi] developed into [ae] and [oe] respectively, a set of sound changes noted by David Salo (GS/§4.190). The development [ai] > [ae] applied to both original primitive diphthongs as well as any diphthongs that arose later from the vocalizations of spirants:

Sindarin Phonetic Development (Part 72)

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S. short vowels vanished before morpheme boundaries; [-C{ĭĕăŏ}] > [-Cø]

Just as short final vowels vanished in Sindarin and Noldorin at the end of words, they also vanished in the middle of words at morpheme boundaries. As suggested by David Salo (GS/§4.115), this vowel loss at morpheme boundaries was later than the loss at the end of words. There are a couple of examples that support this ordering of sound changes:

Sindarin Phonetic Development (Part 70)

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S. [ɣ] became [i] between sonants and vowels; [{lrð}ɣV] > [{lrð}iV]

Where [ɣ] appears between a sonant (voiced consonants like [l], [r] and [ð]) and a vowel, it changed into the vowel [i], as noted by David Salo (GS/§4.152). All the examples we have of this phonetic development are from Noldorin, but we have no reason to believe Sindarin was any different: