Totally off topic, but Sir Ian McKellen is 80 and tours the world with a one-man show celebrating his long career - I saw him the other day in London, and (naturally) he started the show by reciting the Bridge of Khazad-dûm scene from The Fellowship :) and afterwards he produced the actual Glamdring he used as a prop in the films and brandished it around the stage.

There was much more in the show of course, and he is a lovely man. A great night.

Particles of Uncertainty in Quenya


A couple of months ago @Paul Strack posted a short but neat analysis of the attested Quenya particles of uncertainty, their possible shades of meaning and use. Since Discord is a platform we cannot link to, I am copying the text here, for further discussion, and to preserve it for posterity:

ma = interrogative/indefinite (probably true)

qui = neutral hypothetical (may or may not be true)

ai/ce = strong hypothetical (probably not true)

*Ampanyari Leryuvaine Hyarna Angalnóresse Atwe Wed, 11/20/2019 - 14:12
angry beavers

Ampanyari Leryuvaine Hyarna Angalnóresse

Ilúvea *Laukatáre ná sinome - *vilwiste ahyea, ar ta kole arrimbe luimi Angalnóresse. Lá xéya koranar ú sinyeron sa sina hya tana sire uluine ar lieron úmin mauya hehta mardentar.

Quenya Grammar P19: Partitive Plural

In addition to the “general” plural, Quenya has a special “partitive” plural used when describing a portion of a group. The partitive plural is formed using the suffix -li, variously translated as “some, many, a lot of” (PE17/62, 127, 135; VT47/12). It is derived from the primitive root √LI “many” (Ety/LI, VT48/25). Tolkien described the use of this suffix on several occasions:

Quenya Grammar P17: Declension for Number

Like English, Quenya has singular and plural nouns, with singular unmarked and plural marked by -i or -r. However, Quenya has two additional “special plurals”, the dual used when there are only two of an item (“both”), and the partitive-plural when the plural represent a subset of a larger group (“some”). Thus: