Dream

Anatoly Liberman posted this very interesting article on the etymology of the English word dream, and it got me thinking whether Tolkien was aware of the ambiguity behind the etymology (in Old English, the word seems more associated with "joy, noise, life" than "dream", it's worth reading the entire two-part article) and made the roots OLOS and GALAS similar on purpose. I am probably seeing stuff into things here, but I wouldn't put anything past Tolkien :)

Sindarin Phonetic Development (Part 107)

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S. short vowels generally lengthened in monosyllables; [C*V̆C] > [C*V̄C]

NOTE: The examples in this entry were fairly comprehensive when it was written (April 2019) but new examples may have been published since then. For brevity, this entry does not provide references for every word, but it does link each to the appropriate word in Eldamo.

Vikin Kirya Tuvina Nu Kemen

*Vanwienduri utúvier Vikin kirya ya hame nu i kemen epe hya nó1 lári *otoquain hyarmenna i *hérostollo Oslo. Yuhtanente i kirya *nukemenya *terkendarínen, eke mon kene i kiryo kanta askénie i emmasse. I vanwienduri navir hamna taralyane or i kirya ya né nankarina apa lúme. Vikini *lillume *sattaner eteminye ennor - arani, tári - sérenna kiryassen as mainar yo harmar, ar i yondesse ya si kirya tuvina mo kime véle kirya-noireli.

Sindarin Phonetic Development (Part 106)

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S. final [w] usually became [u]; [-C{vw}|-aw] > [-Cu|-au]

In both Sindarin and Noldorin, where it was not otherwise lost, a final [w] usually became [u], mostly notably after a consonant as described by David Salo (GS/§4.195). In Tolkien’s writing, he sometimes represented this final [u] as -w, but this seems to be an orthographic convention, not the actual pronunciation. He mentioned this sound change a number of times:

Sindarin Phonetic Development (Part 103)

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S. long voiceless spirants shortened; [θθ|xx] > [θ|x]

In both Sindarin and Noldorin, long voiceless spirants shortened, as noted by David Salo (GS/§4.184). Tolkien alluded to this phonetic development in a discussion of the transcriptions used by Ælfwine in his document on the Feanorian Alphabet from the 1930s:

Sindarin Phonetic Development (Part 102)

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S. [h] vanished after vowels; [Vh] > [Vø]

In both Sindarin and Noldorin, any non-initial [h] vanished after vowels, as noted by David Salo (GS/§4.100, GS/§4.107, GS/§4.116). A similar sound change occurred in Welsh (WGCH/§94ii). This sound change primarily applied to the [h] that developed from intervocalic [s] which therefore ultimately vanished, as described by Tolkien in a note in The Etymologies from the 1930s:

Silindo, i Mistaila *Rando

Jupiter and its Trojans

*Minaþurindor *entankatánier sa i *rando Silindo láne illume silúmea nómeryasse mi i *Anarya *Panasta.

Nóna ve helka rando amna *kanallume háya pella silúmea nómerya, Silindo rongo *menune alta lendaryanna ya xéyane tere koranari ototuxa húme tenna anyane i nóme imbe Karnil ar *Kormanil. Si enwa entankataina ló i kendare *pityarandoron kombion atta i *pepellar Anar epe ar nó Silindo imya rindesse. Tana pityarandoron ére áne i *sinwasse pá i rando ranya.