Ancient Quenya Phonetics P41: medial [s] often became [z]

Part 40 has already been published here:

AQ. medial [s] often became [z]; [Vs{Vmnrljw}] > [Vz{Vmnrljw}]

In Ancient Quenya, an s was voiced to z between vowels and before voiced consonants, a change described in in both the Outline of Phonetic Development [OP1] from the 1930s and the Outline of Phonology [OP2] from the 1950s. The sound changes in the 1930s were:

Ancient Quenya Phonetics P37: [mw] became [nw]

AQ. [mw] became [nw]; [mw] > [nw]

The combination mw became nw in (Ancient?) Quenya, a sound change mentioned in the Outline of Phonology [OP2] from the 1950s:

mw became dissimilated > nw (OP2: PE19/97).

In a marginal note Tolkien also considered mw > mm (PE19/97 note #141) but the one late example of this sound change shows nw as a result:

I Kelúrea Tengwelamyaréva Kestale

first folio

I *Kelúrea *Tengwelamyaréva Kestale


*Lanéya lambengolmoli olaner keþyaine ekkeþien manen Shakespeareo tyalier lamyaner koranari *kantuxa yá. Hlarie i tyalíva *kelúrea *tengwelamyare kare kárima ista ambe pá i tyalier ar pá *tealentar. I lambengolmo David Crystal akárie minaþúrio úme ar opólie enkare epe hya nó quaistar nerte tengwelamyáreo. Yuhtanes lér nelde ekkeþe manen lie nyarner i tyalier:


Ancient Quenya Phonetics P33: [jei], [wou] became [jē], [wō]

AQ. [jei], [wou] became [jē], [wō]; [jei|wou] > [jē|wō]

The diphthongs [ei], [ou] generally became [ī], [ū] in Quenya, but as a somewhat earlier sound change, the combinations yei, wou became , . The clearest description of this change appears in the Outline of Phonetic Development [OP1] from the 1930s: