Upright or Upside-down? — A Small Exploration of the Variants of Silmë and Essë

If you have studied Tolkien’s attested Tengwar writings yourself, you probably won’t get anything new from this, the distribution of silmë and essë and their respective nuquerna forms have been known in theory for quite a while now and the conclusions I draw aren’t don't add anything new. However this comes up quite frequently, so I wanted to write a slightly more extensive explanation.

Select Elvish Words 3.25-3.29: Sheep, Ram, Lamb

3.25 Sheep

Q. máma n. “sheep”

A word for “sheep” appearing in the Quendi and Eldar essay of 1959-60 as a derivative of ✶māmā (WJ/395). It appeared again in notes from 1968 as a derivative of ✶mbāba (VT47/35), apparently with some amount of assimilation since the second primitive b > m as suggested by Patrick Wynne (VT47/36).

Select Elvish Words 2.57-2.82: Descendant, In-Law, Relative, Family

2.57 Descendant

ᴱQ. hilmi n. “family, offspring”

The word ᴱQ. hilmi “family, offspring” appeared in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s as a derivative of the early root ᴱ√HILI (QL/39). In the contemporaneous Gnomish Lexicon, the word hilmie was given as the Qenya cognate of G. hilm “posterity, one’s descendants, progeny, offspring” (GL/49).