What is your opinion on the occurrence of A-affection in Adûnaic — especially in the situation when one derives masc. karbû and fem. karbî type forms from karab-like nouns whose root vowel is not A, but instead I or U?
Does the attestation dolgu indicate that in such a case I > E and U > O, or should one instead follow the "lead" of kulb-ô, -â, -ê, -û, -î in SD:425?
ᴹ√I¹ “that (deictic particle); [ᴱ√] here it is, root of relatives”
A root in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “that (deictic particle)” (Ety/I¹). A similar root appeared in the Qenya and Gnomish Lexicons of the 1910s glossed “here it is” (QL/41) and “root of relatives” (GL/50). Given Tolkien’s long standing use of i for both “the” and the relative pronouns “that” in all his Elvish languages, this root was established very early and remained more or less fixed throughout Tolkien’s life.
Starting in the late 1950s or early 1960s, Tolkien decided the ancient velar nasal ñ- [ŋ] was strengthened to ñg- initially in (Old) Sindarin and ultimately became g-. Tolkien seems to have introduced this idea in an etymology of the name of Galadriel written sometime between the first and second edition of The Lord of the Rings:
To i tolle Sulawesi mi Indonesia, mi felko *vanwienduri utúlier i tulumaite i anyára *tekemmaron apantaila kelva ná. I tekemma tekina karne vaxenen ar apanta polda polka arwa tumpo atta to kaserya i ké karkat nát. Or i polka eke mon kene *márunyat, ar lanna to i ramba ambe polkato *tekemmato*lemmar, nainalima amna queline tensi. I tekemmaron *fintale tea i karindo arimaite né. I vanwienduri navir i polkar tekine koranari *tuxainen *kanaquain lempe yá.
√DAL “bottom, ground; [ᴹ√] flat”
This root first appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s as ᴹ√DAL with the gloss “flat” and various derivatives of similar meaning (Ety/DAL). It reappeared again in later notes as √DAL “bottom, ground” written in the late 1950s or early 1960s (PE17/150). In both places, it had a variant form √LAD of similar meaning.