Quenya Grammar P87: Interrogative

Questions (interrogatives) in Quenya can be indicated by intonation alone, just like in English: túlalye? “you are coming?” However, more often they are marked with the interrogative particle ma. This particle was derived from the ancient root √MA, which was mentioned in several places (PE17/68, 162; VT47/19). Tolkien discussed its use in some detail in Late Notes on Verb Structure (LVS) from 1969:

Neither of them were neutral


It's funny how things that should be evident sometimes stay hidden despite glaring in your face - yesterday I was musing about how I would express the adjective neutral in NeoQuenya. This, of course, led me to Etymonline and the aforementioned into-face-glaring, when I realized that L neuter, the basis of the word neutralis, is cognate of English neither, which of course makes all the sense in the world (Hungarian semleges "neutral" also comes from sem "nor, neither".

Quenya Grammar P84: Optative

An optative is the expression of a wish, and Quenya usually formulates such expressions using the adverb nai “may it be that, be it that, maybe”. Its most famous use is in nai hiruvalye Valimar, nai elye hiruva “maybe thou shalt find Valimar, maybe even thou shalt find it” in the Namárië poem (LotR/378). Tolkien described this formulation in several places: