The ablative suffix -llo indicates motion away from the declined noun, and is variously glossed “(away) from, out of”. On occasion Tolkien also used the term elative (“out of”) to refer to this case (PE21/68); the exact meaning is contextual.
The allative suffix -nna indicates motion towards the declined noun, and is variously glossed “to, towards, onto, upon”. On occasion Tolkien also used the term illative (“into”) to refer to this case (PE21/68); the exact meaning is contextual.
Posted out of order; should be after the entry on the definite article
Quenya is less inclined to use the definite article than English. It seems the definite article is only required if the definiteness of the noun must be emphasized or is not otherwise specified. One interesting example is the phrase:
The Quenya genitive is formed with the suffix -o and is roughly equivalent to the English preposition “of”. Tolkien talked about the circumstances in which the genitive would be used at some length in his Quenya and Eldar essay written in 1960s, mostly comparing it to the possessive case (WJ/368-369):
The Quenya dative is used for the indirect object of a phrase and is formed using the suffix -n. The indirect object is the recipient or beneficiary of an action, as opposed to the direct object which is the immediate target. In English, the indirect object comes immediately before the direct object in a sentence: “I give you the knife”, “I wish you well”. Alternately, English can indicate the indirect object with prepositions like “to” or “for”: “I give the knife to you”, “I wish happiness for you”.
The accusative form in Quenya is used for the object of verbs and is unmarked in “modern” Quenya (Tarquesta). According to the Plotz letter, there was a distinct accusative form in Classical Quenya (Parmaquesta), marked with a long final vowel for singular vocalic nouns, and by the use of an -i plural for vocalic nouns in the plural: