The basic verbs in Quenya are those verbs whoses stem ends in a consonant. They are mostly derived from primitive biconsonantal verbal roots of the form √KAT, though a few of them like ec- “to have a chance of” begin with a vowel and end with a consonant.
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Quenya verbs can be divided up into three broad groups:
- Basic verbs derived directly from some primitive verb stem.
- Derived verbs created by adding a verbal suffix to another root (verbal or otherwise).
- The u-verbs or a-verbs which have a vocalic addition (a or u) to the stem.
Within these three groups there are more specific verb classes.
Verbs in Quenya serve much the same function as they do in other languages, indicating the action of a phrase. Quenya verbs are inflected for tense, number and person, but the “person” inflections come mostly in the form of pronominal subject suffixes and object suffixes, which are discussed under pronouns. Other details of verbal conjugation are discussed in the following entries under verbs.
Sentence adverbs - adverbs that somehow belong to/modify the entire sentence - are common in natural languages so presumably they would be present in Eldarin, too. Looking through attested phrases in Eldamo however, I have only found two instances: the Early Qenya ar váro naltur an ómi karmar “*but rather they are to all deeds”, and the well known Sindarin edregol e aníra tírad... "in especial he desires to see..."
Interrogatives in Quenya were derived from the root √MA (PE17/68, 161-162; PM/357). This root also seems to be the basis for the neuter indefinite pronoun ma “something” (PE22/154). There are various interrogative forms derived from this root, many of which are simply the root with various Quenya noun case suffixes added:
Like most languages, Quenya had demonstrative elements that could be used to indicate near (“this”) or far (“that”) objects. There are Late Period documents on demonstratives that remain unpublished, so the analysis in this entry must be considered preliminary and incomplete. Tolkien experimented with a variety of forms for the demonstratives throughout his writings, and his use of demonstratives was not entirely consistent. Nevertheless, some broad themes run throughout his changing conceptions of Quenya.
Si aia raiwe, si engwe ya neme ve kuluina andamundo helma ná naitie emma Anaro “palmeo”. I *palantilla Inouye ya tára to Hawaii akárie i emma ya ná venya minya arwa taite alta *askatiéo. *Sastanen i quetta palme imbe *eques-tehtat, an láse naite palme, *aryaquenta náse yasse Anaro úra *hisse ola *nelka ar potai kénima. I palantillo amalta askátie lári otso, epetai ere i kuluine mottoron alta *yúla-olla ve Texas. I mottor nar yasse i úra hisse orya ana Anaro orwe yondi, ta nanunta ter i ammorne astar.