The subjunctive mood is used for various “unreal” (conditional or hypothetical) statements: things where the speaker is uncertain whether or not they are true. These are slightly different from the optative (things the speaker hopes or wishes were true) and the imperative (actions the speaker demands be done).
It's funny how things that should be evident sometimes stay hidden despite glaring in your face - yesterday I was musing about how I would express the adjective neutral in NeoQuenya. This, of course, led me to Etymonline and the aforementioned into-face-glaring, when I realized that L neuter, the basis of the word neutralis, is cognate of English neither, which of course makes all the sense in the world (Hungarian semleges "neutral" also comes from sem "nor, neither".
An optative is the expression of a wish, and Quenya usually formulates such expressions using the adverb nai “may it be that, be it that, maybe”. Its most famous use is in nai hiruvalye Valimar, nai elye hiruva “maybe thou shalt find Valimar, maybe even thou shalt find it” in the Namárië poem (LotR/378). Tolkien described this formulation in several places:
A reflexive formation is one in which the subject and object of the verb are the same. In English, reflexive pronouns are formed with the suffix “-self” as in “the man washed himself”. Quenya has a similar set of reflexive pronouns from with the prefix im- or in- (VT47/37) that presumably would be used the same way: i atan sove inse.
Ilúvea *laukatáre umbe ná ya voro lihlikka kata i silúmea umbe *iluhímeo. Mal yú urre tulmar ké kolir *lahoraine *tyardar: yalle helke *tique ar *nanya *laukatárenen apanta ké engwi i kuvine nér nu sa. *Fornóresse, ara i osto Lendbreen, tára oron ya tensi tupina helkenen, mal sí i *tiquila helke *nanhalyane nulla nakka, ar *sasse tamnar hehtaine liénen i neldea hya kantea haranyesse. *Silu i harma lá malta, míri, hya mainar, mal ilaurie *yuhtamnar ve hyapati, pilini, *lossepanor, ente lanni *vortaine nixenen.
Two questions to phonetics masters (ómanduri): PE19/58 gives the primitive word tálgàrta “high boot”, with, as far as I can see, no descendants.
- had *garta survived into Quenya, would *arta be the only conceivable form it would take?
- had the word survived as a compound only, what the resulting form be any different, e.g. *talyarta?