Select Elvish Words 1.86-1.87: to Light, Kindle; Match, Fire Stick

Select Elvish Words 1.86-1.87: to Light, Kindle; Match, Fire Stick

1.86 to Light, Kindle

Q. calta- v. “to kindle, [ᴹQ.] (cause to) shine, light up, [ᴱQ.] set light to”

This causative verb meaning “kindle, cause to shine” was based on the root √KAL “light; shine” and had a lengthy history in Tolkien’s Elvish languages. ᴱQ. kalta- “kindle, set light to” first appeared in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s under the early root ᴱ√KALA “shine golden” (QL/44), but in The Etymologies of the 1930s ᴹQ. kalta- was only glossed “shine” (Ety/KAL). However the Quenya Verbal System of the 1940s kaltā́ was given as an example of causative verbs and glossed “cause to shine, light up, or kindle (lamp etc.)” (PE22/114). In Common Eldarin: Verb Structure from the early 1950s (primitive) kalta- was glossed “cause to shine, kindle” (PE22/156). This verb also appeared in Late Notes on Verbs (LVS) from 1969 as an element in the adjective Q. lacaltaima “not possible to be kindled”.

ᴺQ. luhtya- v. “extinguish, *quench”

A neologism for “extinguish” coined by Helge Faugkanger for his Neo-Quenya New Testament (NQNT), perhaps intended to be a cognate of S. luithia- “quench”, assuming that verb was derived from primitive *luktya-; hat-tip to Erkenbard for this suggestion. Patrick Wynne suggested S. luithia- could be based on the root √DUY “flood” (VT48/31 note #7) with primitive D/L variation (CT48/22), but this derivations makes it difficult to explain the -thia ending. This verb might instead be tied to the root √LUK “drag”, based on the sense of dragging something over flames to put them out, making primitive *luktya- more plausible. However, -tya does not appear as a verb suffix in Tolkien’s later writing, though it was fairly common in Early Quenya of the 1910s.

ᴺQ. narta- v. “to kindle, *ignite, inflame, set fire to”

A verb in The Etymologies of the 1930s for “kindle” derived from the root ᴹ√NARTA of the same meaning (EtyAC/NARTA). This root is probably just a causative verb formation from ᴹ√NAR¹ “flame, fire”, more literally “*make fire”. Hence I think this verb can be used in the general sense of “*ignite, inflame, set fire to”, etc.

ᴺQ. tinta- v. “to kindle, cause to spark, [ᴹQ.] make to spark”

A word for “to kindle, cause to spark” (MR/388; PE17/69), a causative verb form based on the root √TIN (PE17/22, 69). Its most notable use is in the name Tintallë “(Star) Kindler” for Varda.

Conceptual Development: ᴹQ. tinta- “to kindle, make to spark” appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s with the same derivation (Ety/TIN), and the verb’s introduction probably coincided with Tolkien’s invention of Varda’s sobriquet.

Neo-Quenya: For purpose of Neo-Quenya, I’d limit this verb’s use to “make a spark”. For “set on fire” I’d instead use [ᴹQ.] narta-.

N. nartha- v. “to kindle, *ignite, inflame, set fire to”

A verb in The Etymologies of the 1930s for “kindle” given in the Noldorin infinitive form nartho and derived from the root ᴹ√NARTA of the same meaning (EtyAC/NARTA). This root is probably just a causative verb formation from ᴹ√NAR¹ “flame, fire”, and thus more literally “*make fire”. Hence I think this verb can be used in the general sense of “*ignite, inflame, set fire to”, etc.

S. †thoniel adj. “kindler (in the past)”

An element in the name Gilthoniel “Star-kindler” which Tolkien explained as “an archaic perfect participle/adjective of √THAN, kindle” in a 1955 letter to David Masson (PE17/82).

Neo-Sindarin: This perfect participle implies the existence of a verb *than- “to kindle”, but since Tolkien said the participle was archaic, the verb may be as well, and it is probably better to use attested [N.] nartha- for “kindle” in Neo-Sindarin.

1.87 Match, Fire Stick

ᴱQ. tusture n. “tinder, chips, firewood”

A noun appearing as ᴱQ. tusture “tinder, chips, firewood” in the Qenya Lexicon, a derivative of the root ᴱ√TUŘU [TUÐU] (QL/96).

Neo-Quenya: I think this word may be salvaged in Neo-Quenya as ᴺQ. tusturë based on a Neo-Root ᴺ√TUD from primitive *tud+tud-ē (with a reduplicated root), but I would limit its use to “tinder, chips” and use ᴺQ. tundo for “firewood”.

ᴱQ. tusturin (tusturind-) n. “match”

A noun appearing as ᴱQ. tusturin (tusturind-) “match” in the Qenya Lexicon, an elaboration of ᴱQ. tusture “tinder, chips, firewood” (QL/96).

Neo-Quenya: Since I think the word ᴺQ. tusturë “tinder” is salvageable using the Neo-Root ᴺ√TUD, I would likewise salvage ᴺQ. tusturin “match” for the purposes of Neo-Quenya.

ᴹQ. yúla n. “ember, smouldering wood”

A noun for {“ember, smouldering brand” >>} “ember, smouldering wood” based on the root ᴹ√YUL “smoulder” in The Etymologies of the 1930s (Ety/YUL; EtyAC/YUL). The later meaning of the root √YUL was “drink” (PE17/63).

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Eldarin, I would adapt the root ᴹ√YUL “smoulder” as the Neo-Root ᴺ√YOL/YUL with vowel variations similar to √SOK/SUK and as such would salvage this word for the purposes of Neo-Quenya; see the entry on ᴺ√YOL/YUL for further discussion.

N. iolf n. “brand”

A noun for “brand” in The Etymologies of the 1930s derived from the root ᴹ√YUL “smoulder” (Ety/YUL). The form iolv was written next to it, probably indicating pronunciation (EtyAC/YUL). It was marked ON. but should probably be N. as suggested by Hostetter and Wynne (EtyAC/YUL).

Neo-Quenya: This word would become *ylf if adapted directly to Neo-Sindarin, but that conflicts with S. ylf “drinking-vessel” (WJ/416). For purposes of Neo-Eldarin, I would adapt the root ᴹ√YUL “smoulder” as the Neo-Root ᴺ√YOL, which would allow the retention of this Noldorin word unchanged since it could be derived from *yolmā instead.

N. iûl n. “embers”

A noun for “embers” in The Etymologies of the 1930s derived from the root ᴹ√YUL “smoulder” and cognate to ᴹQ. yúla of the same meaning (Ety/YUL). It was marked ON. but should probably be N. as suggested by Hostetter and Wynne (EtyAC/YUL).

Conceptual Development: A form N. uilw “embers” appeared earlier in the same entry, but was deleted.

Neo-Quenya: This word would become *ŷl if adapted directly to Neo-Sindarin, but the root √YUL was used for “drink” in later writings (PE17/63, 180; WJ/416). To avoid this conflict, I recommend adapting ᴹ√YUL “smoulder” as the Neo-Root ᴺ√YOL of the same meaning, which would allow the retention of this Noldorin word unchanged since it could be derived from *yōlā instead, where long [ō] became [ū] after [ju] became [ȳ] (probably).

G. pruin n. “charcoal”

A noun appearing as G. pruin “charcoal” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/64) probably related to the early root ᴱ√PUŘU “consume by fire” [PUÐU] (QL/75). Its gloss was deleted.

Neo-Sindarin: I think this word is worth salvaging in Neo-Sindarin, reconceived of as a derivative of an augmented variant of the later root √RUY “blaze (red)”.

G. tuth n. “tinder”

The word G. tuth “tinder” appeared in the Gnomish Lexicon as a derivative of the root ᴱ√tudh- [TUÐU] (GL/72), where the final ð became th.

Neo-Sindarin: I think this word may be salvaged in Neo-Sindarin as a derivative of the Neo-Root ᴺ√TUD “firewood, kindling”, but it would become ᴺS. tudh in Sindarin‘s phonetic developments.

G. tuthli n. “match”

The word G. tuthli “match” appeared in the Gnomish Lexicon as elaboration of G. tuth “tinder” (GL/72).

Neo-Sindarin: This form does not adapt gracefully to later Sindarin, so for “match” I’d use ᴺS. tudheg as a diminutive form of ᴺS. tudh “tinder”.

Comments

Submitted by Paul Strack Wed, 01/26/2022 - 05:43

In reply to by Atwe

Unfortunately, I’ve already built v0.8.1, so this fix will be in 0.8.2