Sindarin Phonetic Development (Part 20)


OS. final [tʰ] became [t]; [-tʰ] > [-t]

Based on a single example, it seems final [-tʰ] > [-t], probably in Old Noldorin, as suggested by David Salo (GS/§4.55):

  • ᴹ✶KHOTH [> khōth > khōt] > N. hûd “assembly” (Ety/KHOTH).

It is unclear whether this sound change applied to other final aspirates, or whether this change could also occur in later Sindarin.

Sindarin Phonetic Development (Part 16)


OS. initial syllabic [m], [n], [ŋ] became [am], [an], [aŋ]; [{ṃṇŋ̣}-] > [a{mnŋ}-]

In Sindarin and Noldorin, syllabic nasals at the beginning of words developed the vowel a, so that [ṃ-/ṇ-/ŋ̣-] became [am-/an-/aŋ-]. A clear description of this sound change occurs in the notes on ambar vs. umbar from the 1950s:

Sindarin Phonetic Development (Part 15)


OS. initial [ml], [mr] became [bl], [br]; [m{lr}-] > [b{lr}-]

In Noldorin and Gnomish there are a number of examples of initial mr- becoming br-; this sound change must have occurred after unstressed initial syllables were reduced to favored clusters. This same sound change occurs in the history of Welsh, sometime between Proto-Keltic and Britannic (WGCH/§99ii). Some Gnomish and Noldorin examples: