July 2020

Sindarin Grammar P35: Verb Classes

Sindarin (and it’s conceptual precursors) have two major classes of verbs: basic verbs (based on an unadorned primitive verbal root) and derived verbs (produced with some kind of verbal suffix). In the literature, these two classes are sometimes called i-stem verbs and a-stem verbs after their present tense forms, which frequently have i or a respectively. For example, this terminology appears in David Salo’s book, Gateway to Sindarin (GS/111), though I am not certain he first coined these terms.

Sindarin Grammar P28: Independent Pronouns

In Sindarin, subject pronouns are suffixed to verbs, but Sindarin also has a set of independent pronouns that can be used in different contexts. Unfortunately, we have no complete paradigms for independent Sindarin pronouns other than a (very early) paradigm for Gnomish of the 1910s. We do have several complete paradigms of subject suffixes which provide clues as to what the independent forms might be.