Would *anasta- be a viable neologism for "oppose, face in a certain direction, be against something", as a derivation of the root ANAT > anattā > anasta (as anta- is taken)? See also the early Noldorin athra-.


Alternatively, *anahta- from anak  "against"?

Submitted by S P Wed, 01/15/2020 - 19:59

*Anasta-/*anahta- (albeit *anahta- would also be the 'ahosta-inf.' of nahta-) would certainly help with the fact that *anat+kar- / *anak+kar- results in forms which look like the Q verb "to avenge" prefixed with an- (due to which one who wishes to create a synonymous verb in the style of old Indo-European may need to consider instead the prefixes which one finds in the Eldamo search results for "answer" [I'm thinking here of Latin ob- and re-, the possibility of Q enda- coming from NDA(-N), and so on]).

Certainly at the moment it seems to me that going by the more Icelandic/Ibero-Romance-like translation route, viz. "to act against", "to stand against" word-for-word (with a separate preposition like your *anqua before the object) would make for an intelligible expression as well.

As for the attempt to translate via negation, i.e. with ava- / nan- (< avalerya-, nancar-) plus some verb, what would be the meaning of the best candidate? Indeed "to support" which Wiktionary gives as the antonym of "to oppose"? (And do we in that case add the prefix to tuluk-, a talat-class verb stem?)

Ad notam:

In Finnish we have the appearance-wise very similar verbs vastusta- (inf. vastustaa) "to oppose, resist" and vasta- (inf. vastata) "to answer, reply". In Estonian, one finds vastu olla/panna "against be/put" and vasta- (inf. vasta-ta- pro -da-) "to answer, reply".

Submitted by Atwe Wed, 01/15/2020 - 22:56

Indeed I was looking for a neutral term, not necessarily implying some deliberate standing against things, more like in opposing thumbs, someone facing you etc. which then of course by extension can also mean opposing someone, opponent and so forth. Hence my suggestion to simply verbify the root ANAT which also yields the noun "face", and Tolkien seemed to have a similar idea in early Noldorin.

It has also occurred to me that since astar-, literally "stand by" also meant "support", by analogy *anahtar- or *anahtar- could mean "stand against".

Hungarian phrases mostly contain "eye" (szemkõzt, szemben, szemben áll), or the more directly corresponding ellenáll "stand against, resist", but that cannot be used just to describe something situated opposite something.