Select Elvish Words 1.43: Wood, Timber

Select Elvish Words 1.43: Wood, Timber

1.43 Wood, Timber

ᴱQ. kinda n. “splinter”

A noun appearing as ᴱQ. kinda “splinter” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, derived from the early root ᴱ√KIŘI [KIÐI] (QL/047).

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I think this word can be salvaged as ᴺQ. cirda “splinter, wood shaving” from the later root √KIR.

ᴹQ. runda n. “rough piece of wood”

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “rough piece of wood” derived from the root ᴹ√RUD (Ety/RUD).

Q. tauca adj. “stiff, wooden”

A word in a list of “large & small” roots from around 1968 glossed “stiff, wooden” and derived from the root √TAW “wood” (PE17/115). Its Sindarin cognate S. taug was gloss “firm, strong”, so its ancient sense was probably something like “stiff like wood”.

Q. toa n. “wood (as material)”

A word for “wood” mentioned in passing in notes on the Quendi and Eldar essay from 1959-60 (VT39/6), also appearing in a list of “large & small” roots from around 1968 with the gloss “wood as material” and derived from the root √TAW “wood” (PE17/115).

Conceptual Development: In The Etymologies of the 1930s Tolkien instead had ᴹQ. tavar “wood (material)” derived from primitive ᴹ✶tawar of the same meaning, from the extended root ᴹ√TÁWAR “wood, forest” (Ety/TÁWAR). In this earlier conception, the awa became ava rather than reducing to oa because the initial a was stressed. Stress alone was probably not enough to preserve ancient áwa in Tolkien’s later conception of the language’s phonetic development.

Q. toina n. “wood, *wooden, made of wood”

A word glossed “wood” appearing in a list of “large & small” roots from around 1968 derived from primitive ✶tawĭnā (PE17/115) and hence probably an adjective “*wooden, (made) of wood” as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (QQ/toina).

Conceptual Development: In The Etymologies of the 1930s Tolkien instead had ᴹQ. taurina “of wood”, an adjectival form of ᴹQ. tavar “wood (material)” (Ety/TÁWAR). The word ᴹQ. toina appeared in notes on The Feanorian Alphabet from the 1940s, but was unglossed, so whether it meant “*wooden” is unclear.

ᴱQ. tundo n. “firewood, fuel”

A noun in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s given as ᴱQ. {tunda >>} tundo “firewood, fuel” and derived from the root ᴱ√TUŘU [TUÐU] (QL/96).

Neo-Quenya: I think this word may be salvaged in Neo-Quenya as ᴺQ. tundo based on a Neo-Root ᴺ√TUD.

ᴱQ. turu n. “wood (as material), (orig.) firewood”

A noun in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s appearing as ᴱQ. turu and described as “properly = firewood — but used of wood in general as a material”, a derivative from the root ᴱ√TUŘU [TUÐU] (QL/96). It also appeared in the contemporaneous Poetic and Mythological Words of Eldarissa with the gloss “wood (material)” (PME/96) and appeared again as turu “wood” in Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s (PE16/139). It appeared once more many years later as an element in the name Turuphanto “Wooden-whale” (UT/191), and so may remain viable in Tolkien’s later conception of the language.

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I think it is preferable to use the word Q. toa for “wood (material)”.

ᴱQ. tusture n. “tinder, chips, ⚠️firewood”

A noun appearing as ᴱQ. tusture “tinder, chips, firewood” in the Qenya Lexicon, a derivative of the root ᴱ√TUŘU [TUÐU] (QL/96).

Neo-Quenya: I think this word may be salvaged in Neo-Quenya as ᴺQ. tusturë based on a Neo-Root ᴺ√TUD, but I would limit its use to “tinder, chips” and use ᴺQ. tundo for “firewood”.

N. drafn n. “hewn log”

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s given as {dravon or dravn >>} N. drafn “hewn log” derived from the root ᴹ√DARAM “beat, hew” (Ety/DARÁM; EtyAC/DARÁM). This word would be pronounced [dravn], and I prefer the less ambiguous spelling ᴺS. dravn for purposes of Neo-Sindarin; see the discussion of the Sindarin phoneme [v] for details.

S. taw n. “wood as material”

A noun in a list of “large & small” roots from around 1968 under the root √TAW “wood”, the cognate of Q. töa “wood as material” (PE17/115) and thus probably derived from primitive *tawā.

Conceptual Development: In The Etymologies of the 1930s “wood (material)” was N. tawar (Ety/TÁWAR), whereas in the the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s it was G. âl (GL/19).

S. tawen adj. “wood (of material), ?wooden (of make)”

A word in a list of “large & small” roots from around 1968, apparently an adjectival form of taw “wood as material” (PE17/115). Its gloss is unclear but may be “wood (of material)” or “wooden (of make)” as suggested by Christopher Gilson. It appeared beside a form tewin, either a plural or (less likely) a variant form.

Conceptual Development: In The Etymologies of the 1930s the form was N. tawaren “wooden” (pl. tewerin), an adjectival form of longer N. tawar (Ety/TÁWAR).

G. tund n. “log for the fire, *firewood, fuel”

A noun in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s given as G. tund “a log for the fire” and derived from ᴱ√tudh- (GL/42).

Neo-Sindarin: I think this word may be salvaged in Neo-Sindarin as ᴺS. tund, a general word for “firewood” based on the Neo-Root ᴺ√TUD.