In PE22:103 Tolkien mentions the Quenya verb lauta- "abound" and goes on saying that it is used impersonally, as in malta launen "gold abounded to me". Is this truly impersonal though, a subjectless verb, like úlo, or luin? Isn't the case simply that here "gold" is the grammatical subject, but the logical subject is "I"1?

Particles of Uncertainty in Quenya


A couple of months ago @Paul Strack posted a short but neat analysis of the attested Quenya particles of uncertainty, their possible shades of meaning and use. Since Discord is a platform we cannot link to, I am copying the text here, for further discussion, and to preserve it for posterity:

ma = interrogative/indefinite (probably true)

qui = neutral hypothetical (may or may not be true)

ai/ce = strong hypothetical (probably not true)



As the crebain were birds of Middle-Earth, I assume their name would've been adopted into Quenya as a loanword - but how would it have been adapted? *ravan? *karwan?

I see in Eldamo that the word has been extended with the meaning "raven", which makes sense in a way.



Do you think péti "lips" could be a model how CV monosyllables form their plurals? I mean like pé - péti, ré - *réti, thé - *théti, possibly pí - *píti etc

It's a wild stab, I know, it just occurred to me.