Quenya Grammar P58: Copula

A “copula” is a linguistic term for a small linking word connecting a subject to a predicative expression. In English, the copula is the verb “to be”: “Elrond is a man; Elrond is old”. In Quenya, the verb ná- may be used as a copula, but it is often optional. It is perfectly normal in Quenya to put the predicative expression immediately after the subject without an joining word at all: Elerondo nér; Elerondo yára.

The Glossing Thread


There are ~60 Middle Quenya and Late Quenya entries in Eldamo marked as [unglossed] — some probably trivial, others more obscure, or outright impossible to deduct. I had this idea to open this thread to discuss and possibly assign a consensual meaning to them (where possible), which could then be added to the neo section of Eldamo.

If the exercise is a "success" we could extend it to other languages.

Here is the list of unglossed Quenya entries (thank you, Paul, for the Eldamo csv export) - let the glossing begin!:



What would you use for "pair" as a noun? The dual declension is useful to denote a pair of things, but sometimes one needs a generic term for 'pair, couple'.

My immediate idea is to use atwa or tanta nominally, but maybe someone will have a better idea.