Select Elvish Words 3.61-3.612: Dog, Puppy

Select Elvish Words 3.61-3.612: Dog, Puppy

3.61 Dog

⚠️Q. n. “hound (or ?heart)”

A Quenya word appearing in rough notes on Words, Phrases and Passages from The Lord of the Rings from the late 1950s or early 1960s exploring the possible origins of S. huorn (PE17/86). The gloss “hound” is uncertain and could be “heart” according to Christopher Gilson. Tolkien seems to have vacillated between primitive roots √KHUG (the basis for “dog” words in The Etymologies) and √KHO(G) or √KHON (the basis for “heart” words in The Etymologies), connections that were also pointed out by Christopher Gilson.

Neo-Quenya: Giving the tenuous nature of this word, I’d stick to better defined ᴹQ. huo “dog” from The Etymologies for purposes of Neo-Quenya.

ᴹQ. huan (hún-) n. “hound, ⚠️[ᴱQ.] dog”

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “hound” derived from primitive ᴹ✶khugan under the root ᴹ√KHUG “bark, bay” (Ety/KHUGAN). It was followed a parenthetical form (húnen), likely a genitive, indicating a stem form of hún-. This word served as the basis for the name of the great Valinorian hound Huan.

Conceptual Development: The forms huan and {hwan >>} huan appeared in both the Qenya Lexicon and Qenya Phonology of the 1910s, but in both cases this word was revised to ᴱQ. fan (fand-) “dog” (QL/37; PE12/26). This word was derived from the early root ᴱ√SAẆA < sǝwǝ (QL/82) and primitive forms ᴱ✶swandǝ (PE12/26) or ᴱ✶swǝnd- (QL/82). The vacillation from huan to fan reflects Tolkien’s uncertainty on the development of initial sw- in Early Qenya, either to hw- > hu- or to f- (PE12/26 note #26). The form ᴱQ. huan (huand-) “dog” appeared in Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s (PE16/132). It appeared again in The Etymologies, with a new gloss “hound”, a revised derivation and a new stem form hún- (see above).

ᴹQ. huo n. “dog”

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “dog” derived from the root ᴹ√KHUG “bark, bay” (Ety/KHUGAN). It is probably one of the better known words for “dog” in Quenya, and was widely used in Helge Fauskanger’s Neo-Quenya New Testament (NQNT).

Q. roa n. “dog”

A word for “dog” appearing in 1968 notes on monosyllabic primitive Elvish nouns (VT47/35). Of the primitive forms, Tolkien first gave ✶wā(w) “dog” and ✶grā “bear”, but ✶wā(w) was struck through and the gloss of ✶grā was changed to “dog”, after which Tolkien wrote Q. roa “dog” (VT47/36). He seems to have been disatisfied with this derivation, however, going on to write a number of primitive animal roots in the upper margin, including ✶yarr- “dog”.

Conceptual Development: ᴱQ. roa “a wild beast” appeared in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, derived from primitive ᴱ✶raw̯a under the early root ᴱ√RAVA or ᴱ√RAẆA (QL/79).

Neo-Quenya: A somewhat better known Quenya word for “dog” is ᴹQ. huo from The Etymologies, which is the word used in Helge Fauskanger’s Neo-Quenya New Testament (NQNT). This word might coexist with roa, however.

ᴹQ. ronyo n. “‘chaser’, hound of chase, *hunting dog”

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “‘chaser’, hound of chase” derived from primitive ᴹ✶ronyō under the root ᴹ√ROY¹ “chase” (Ety/ROY¹). In the first version of this entry, Tolkien used the vowel u for these words: ᴹ√RUY > ᴹ✶runyō > ᴹQ. runyo (EtyAC/ROY¹).

ᴱQ. savar n. “wild dog, jackal”

ᴱQ. savar “wild dog, jackal” appeared in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s under the early root ᴱ√SAẆA (QL/82). This word also appeared with the gloss “wild dog” in the Poetic and Mythological Words of Eldarissa (PME/82).

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I’d update this word to ᴺQ. huar “wild dog, jackal” using the later root ᴹ√KHUG that seems to have replaced ᴱ√SAẆA (Ety/KHUGAN).

ᴱQ. savarda n. “pack (of dogs, wolves)”

ᴱQ. savarda or savarna “pack of dogs, wolves” appeared in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s as an elaboration of ᴱQ. savar “wild dog, jackal” under the early root ᴱ√SAẆA (QL/82).

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I’d update this word to ᴺQ. huarda “pack (of dogs, wolves)” using the later root ᴹ√KHUG that seems to have replaced ᴱ√SAẆA (Ety/KHUGAN).

ᴱQ. suni n. “bitch, *female dog”

ᴱQ. suni “bitch” appeared in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s derived from ᴱ✶sẇǝnī́ under the early root ᴱ√SAẆA < sǝwǝ (QL/82). This word also appeared in the Qenya Phonology with a similar derivation (PE12/26), and appeared again in the Poetic and Mythological Words of Eldarissa (PME/82).

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I’d update this word to ᴺQ. húni “bitch, *female dog” using the later root ᴹ√KHUG that seems to have replaced ᴱ√SAẆA (Ety/KHUGAN).

N. n. “dog”

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “dog” derived from the root ᴹ√KHUG “bark, bay” (Ety/KHUGAN).

Conceptual Development: G. “dog” also appeared in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/49), but in this period was probably derived from the early root ᴱ√SAẆA (QL/82).

S. huan n. “great dog, hound”

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “hound” derived from primitive ᴹ√KHUGAN; in the second version of this entry the root became ᴹ√KHUG “bark, bay” and Tolkien only said that N. Huan was a dog-name, though its cognate ᴹQ. huan still meant “hound” (Ety/KHUGAN). This word was indeed used as the name of the great Valinorian hound Huan, which Tolkien established very early (LT2/21) and retained for his entire life (S/142).

Possible Etymology: It is hard to explain why the primitive short ŭ in huan did not become o as usual in Noldorin and Sindarin. Perhaps the primitive form was actually *khūgan in the Noldorin/Sindarin branch of the language. Tolkien did frequently wrote the name as Húan in later writings (RS/183; WJ/62 and forward).

Conceptual Development: In Tolkien’s earliest writings, ᴱQ. huan “dog” was a Qenya word, and its nearest Gnomish equivalents were G. “dog” and G. saur “hound, wild dog” (GL/49, 67), all derived from the early root ᴱ√SAẆA (QL/82). The form ᴱN. fand or fan “dog” appearing in Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s was probably also related (PE13/143). By The Etymologies of the 1930s, it seems Huan was a Noldorin name, and it may have remained so in Sindarin of the 1950s and 60s, but since its Quenya form was identical it is hard to know for sure.

G. huil n. “bitch, *female dog”

The word G. huil “bitch” appeared in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s as a female variant of G. “dog” (GL/49).

Neo-Sindarin: I would adapt this word as huil “bitch, *female dog” for purposes of Neo-Sindarin as a derivative of later root ᴹ√KHUG “bark, bay” (Ety/KHUGAN), perhaps derived from primitive *khūgil; compare to S. huan “hound”.

N. rhŷn n. “chaser, hound of chase”

The word N. rhŷn “‘chaser’, hound of chase” appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s derived from primitive ᴹ✶ronyō under the root ᴹ√ROY¹ “chase” (Ety/ROY¹). It is not entirely clear how the ŷ arose in this word; compare N. rhein < rhœin (< *ronya) < ᴹ✶runya (Ety/RUN) which shows the more typical Noldorin phonetic developments. Perhaps it was a dialectical development, or was based on a variant primitive form ronı̯- with early o-loss.

Neo-Sindarin: This word is generally adapted as ᴺS. rŷn for purposes of Neo-Sindarin, as suggested in Hiswelókë’s Sindarin Dictionary (HSD).

G. saur n. “hound, wild dog”

The word G. saur “hound, wild dog” appeared in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/67), probably a cognate of ᴱQ. savar “wild dog, jackal” under the early root ᴱ√SAẆA (QL/82).

Neo-Sindarin: For purposes of Neo-Sindarin, I’d update this word to ᴺS. huar “wild dog” using the later root ᴹ√KHUG that seems to have replaced ᴱ√SAẆA (Ety/KHUGAN); compare to ᴺQ. huar of similar meaning.

3.612 Puppy

ᴱQ. saule n. “litter (of pups, cubs, etc.)”

The word ᴱQ. saule “litter of pups, cubs, etc.” appeared in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s under the early root ᴱ√SAẆA that was the basis of various dog words (QL/82).

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I’d update this word to ᴺQ. huolë using the later word ᴹQ. huo “dog” (Ety/KHUGAN).

Comments

Submitted by Atwe Thu, 03/31/2022 - 10:18

Neo-Quenya: Giving Tolkien’s vacillations on these 1968 forms, I’d stick to the better known ᴹQ. huo as the common word for “dog” in (Neo) Quenya
Roandil will want to have a word with you on that... :P
Submitted by Paul Strack Thu, 03/31/2022 - 16:06

You have a good point about roa. I removed the deprecate mark and changed the last paragraph to read:

Neo-Quenya: A somewhat better known Quenya word for “dog” is ᴹQ. huo from The Etymologies, which is the word used in Helge Fauskanger’s Neo-Quenya New Testament (NQNT). This word might coexist with roa, however.