Quenya Grammar P34: Comitative

The comitative case is one that Tolkien abandoned in his later writings. Indeed, the function of this case is not entirely clear, though its name implies that it indicates an “accompanying” noun. In its first appearance, the comitative case used the suffix -iko (PE16/113), and in this form it may have appeared in some sentences from the earliest drafts of the Markirya poem, as suggested by the editors of PE16 (Gilson, Smith, Wynne, Hostetter and Welden):

Quenya Grammar P33: Similative

This noun case is one that Tolkien abandoned in his later writings. In the Early Quenya Grammar (EQG) he called it the “Manner” case (PE14/46, 78), but in declension tables from the late 1920s through 1930s he often labeled it the “Adverb” case (PE16/113; PE21/4, 53) and in a couple places he called it the “Comparative” case (PE21/42, 46).

Spatial Positional/Relational Adjectives in NeoQuenya


I would like to gather ideas for neologisms covering spatial positional/relational adjectives, which are rather sparsely attested, and often cause a headache for NQ writers. These are adjectives that specify an objects position with regards to a center point, axis, or plane.


I am thinking of this set, listing the attested words:

medial/middle/central: endea, en(t)ya

internal/interior: mitya

external/exterior: ava, ette


inferior/nether: EQ úva


Hierarchy of Adjectives in the Noun Phrase

It is a frequent way of natural languages to make a noun in the sentence more specific by using several adjectives/qualifiers before the noun: the ugly big black smoke-spitting articulated lorry. One can also observe that the order or position which these qualifiers take before the noun follows some sort of regularity which is inherently "felt" by the speaker: we say little red riding hood but would (probably) not say riding red little hood.


This little poem is heavily inspired by a poem written by Hungarian poet Sándor Weöres that was known practically by every child when I grew up (and probably still is). I can't call it a translation as I simply lack the vocabulary and skills to do it justice, but I at least tried to convey the rhythm (the original consists purely of molossi to mimic the swinging-ringin motion and sound of the sleighs) and sense.