Could vanda “oath, pledge, solemn promise” come from *WAD being a variant of WED "bind"? That could mean that *vasta- "pledge, promise" could be a variant of vesta- which was repurposed as "wed, marry" and derived from BES later in the game.

Shiny Boots of Leather


Two questions to phonetics masters (ómanduri): PE19/58 gives the primitive word tálgàrta “high boot”, with, as far as I can see, no descendants.

  • had *garta survived into Quenya, would *arta be the only conceivable form it would take?
  • had the word survived as a compound only, what the resulting form be any different, e.g. *talyarta?




How do you guys analyze mestanyatse "suffixion"? Is it a verb *mestanya- "to add to the end, extend" with an abstract suffix, or is it somehow a compound of metta/mesta "end" and *yatse "joining" from YAT? Or something entirely else?

The Glossing Thread


There are ~60 Middle Quenya and Late Quenya entries in Eldamo marked as [unglossed] — some probably trivial, others more obscure, or outright impossible to deduct. I had this idea to open this thread to discuss and possibly assign a consensual meaning to them (where possible), which could then be added to the neo section of Eldamo.

If the exercise is a "success" we could extend it to other languages.

Here is the list of unglossed Quenya entries (thank you, Paul, for the Eldamo csv export) - let the glossing begin!:



In PE22:103 Tolkien mentions the Quenya verb lauta- "abound" and goes on saying that it is used impersonally, as in malta launen "gold abounded to me". Is this truly impersonal though, a subjectless verb, like úlo, or luin? Isn't the case simply that here "gold" is the grammatical subject, but the logical subject is "I"1?

Particles of Uncertainty in Quenya


A couple of months ago @Paul Strack posted a short but neat analysis of the attested Quenya particles of uncertainty, their possible shades of meaning and use. Since Discord is a platform we cannot link to, I am copying the text here, for further discussion, and to preserve it for posterity:

ma = interrogative/indefinite (probably true)

qui = neutral hypothetical (may or may not be true)

ai/ce = strong hypothetical (probably not true)



As the crebain were birds of Middle-Earth, I assume their name would've been adopted into Quenya as a loanword - but how would it have been adapted? *ravan? *karwan?

I see in Eldamo that the word has been extended with the meaning "raven", which makes sense in a way.