VinQuettaParma

The NeoQuenya and NeoSindarin Wiktionary

VinQuettaParma

The NeoQuenya and NeoSindarin Wiktionary


ca, cata
, cana prep? “behind, at back of place” (VT43:30)
(“kâ”) “jaw” noun (GL:37; later sources give anca)
caila
(“k”) adj. (and noun???) “lying in bed, bedridden, sickness” (KAY, VT45:19). It may be that the gloss “sickness” applies only to the “Noldorin”/Sindarin form cael listed before Quenya qq:caila, since cael could be both an adjective and a noun (the ancient adjective *kailā “bedridden” merging with the noun *kailē “sickness”). In Quenya the form qq:caila < *kailā would probably be an adjective only.
caima
(“k”) noun “bed” (KAY)
caimasan
(“k”) noun “bedchamber” (caimasamb-, as in pl. caimasambi) (STAB)
caimasse
(“k”) noun “lying in bed, sickness” (KAY)
caimassea
(“k”) adj. “bedridden, sick” (KAY)
caina
, see cea, cean]
caine
“lay”, pa.t. of caita- “lie”, q.v.
cainen
(“k”) cardinal “ten” (KAYAN/KAYAR). According to VT48:12, Tolkien eventually rejected this word (cainen would only mean “I lay”, sc. the pa.t. caine with the ending -n “I”). See quain, quean.
caire
vb. “lay” (pa.t. of “lie”) (MC:221; this is “Qenya” - in LotR-style Quenya caine pa.t. of caita?) An word caire with no clear definition appears in PE17:101; see cea, caire.
caista
] (“k”), fraction “one tenth” (1/10), also cast, an unusual Quenya form since the language does not normally tolerate two consonants finally (VT48:11). Compound qq:caistanótie (“k”) “decimal system” (in counting) (ibid.) However, Tolkien later rejected the root KAYAN “ten” in favour of KWAYA(M), changing the cardinal “ten” from cainen to quain, quean (VT48:13). Apparently we must therefore read *quaista as the new fraction “one tenth”.
caita-
vb. “lie” (= lie down, not “tell something untrue”), aorist tense “lies” in the sentences sindanóriello caita mornie “out of a grey land darkness lies” (Nam, RGEO:67), caitas lá/palla i sír “it is [lit. lies] (far) beyond the river” (PE17:65); the latter example demonstrates that caita can also be used of a geographical feature that “lies” in a certain place. According to PE17:72 and VT48:12-13, the pa.t. is caine or ceante rather than caitane. The “Qenya” form kakainen, translated “were lying”, may seem to be related (VT27:7, 21)
caivo
noun “corpse” (MC:221; Tolkien's later Quenya has loico or quelet)
caivo-calma
(“k”) noun “corpse-light” = corpsecandle (MC:214; this is “Qenya”: Tolkien's later Quenya has loicolícuma)
cal
- vb. “shine”, future tense caluva (“k”) “shall shine” (UT:22 cf. 51). Compare also early “Qenya” cala- (“k”) “shine” (LT1:254). It is possible that the verbal stem should have a final -a in later Quenya as well, since this vowel would not appear in the future tense caluva (compare valuvar as the pl. future tense of vala-, WJ:404).
cala
(“k”) noun “light” (KAL). Concerning the “Qenya” verb cala-, see #cal- above.
Calacilya
(“k”) place-name “Pass of Light”, in which Kôr was built (KIL, KAL). Evidently a variant of Calacirya.
Calacirya
place-name “Light-cleft”, Calacirya, the great ravine in the mountains of Valinor, the passage leading from Valmar to the region where the Teleri lived. Genitive Calaciryo in Namárie (Nam, RGEO:67)
Calaciryan
(“k”) place-name “the Cleft of Light”, the pass in the Pelóri, apparently a variant of Calacirya (WJ:403, SA:kal-, kir-). Calaciryan, Calaciryande, “the region of Eldamar (Elvenhome) in and near the entrance to the ravine, where the Light was brighter and the land more beautiful” (RGEO:70)
Calainis
(“k”) noun “May” (LT1:252, 254; in Tolkien's later Quenya Lótesse)
Calamando
(“k”) masc. name “Light Mando” = Manwe (MBAD, (KAL, MANAD), VT45:18, 33)
calambar
(“k”) adj.? *”light-fated” (VT49:41, 42)
Calamor
(“k”) (Q? - not Sindarin!) pl. noun *“Light-Ones” = Light-Elves? Sg. *Calamo (KAL)
calasse
(“k”) noun “clarity, brilliance” (GL:39)
Calaquendi
pl. noun “Elves of the Light, Light-elves” (SA:kal-, SA:quen-/quet-, WJ:361, WJ:373); spelt Kalaqendi in Etym (KAL). Sg. *Calaquende.
calar
noun “lamp” (VT47:13)
calarus
noun “polished copper” (VT41:10)
Calavéne
(“k”) noun “Sun” (lit. *“light-vessel”, *“light-dish”) (LT1:254)
Calavente
(“k”) noun “Sun” (LT1:254)
calca
noun “glass” (VT47:35); compare hyelle, cilin.
cále
(“k”) noun “light” (Markirya; in early “Qenya”, cále meant “morning”, LT1:254)
calima
adj. “bright” (VT42:32); cf. ancalima; in PE17:56, arcalima appears as another superlative “brightest” (see ar- #2).
Calimehtar
masc.name, *“Bright Swordsman” (Appendix A)
Calimmacil
masc. name, *“Bright Sword” (for *Calimamacil?) (Appendix A)
calina
(“k”) adj. “light” (KAL), “bright” (VT42:32) “(literally illumined) sunny, light” (PE17:153)– but apparently a noun “light” in coacalina, q.v.
Calion
, Tar-Calion, masc. name, the Quenya name of King Ar-Pharazôn “the Golden”. Calion would seem to be connected to cal- “shine”, cále “light”. (Silm)
Caliondo
, masc. name, maybe a longer form of Calion above (unless qq:Caliondo contains ondo “rock”) (UT:210)
calliére
pa.t. vb. “shone” (“k”) (MC:220; this is “Qenya” - in LotR-style Quenya *calle, *caltane.)
callo
(“k”) noun “noble man, hero” (KAL)
calma
noun “lamp, a light, device for shining light” (Appendix E, KAL, PE17:123, 180), also name of tengwa #3 (cf. calmatéma), which was also already its name in the mostly pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies (VT45:18, there spelt “kalma”). In early “Qenya”, calma (“k”) meant “daylight” (LT1:254; in MC:213, the word is translated “light”). Plural instrumental calmainen (“k”) “lights-by”, by lights (MC:216)
Calmacil
masc. name, *”Light-sword“ or possibly (if haplology of *Calmamacil) *”Lamp-sword“ (Appendix A). Cf. cále, cala, calma, macil.
calmatan
noun “lampwright” (PE17:96)
calmatéma
nounk-series“, velar series: the third column of the Tengwar system (Appendix E)
calpa
(“k”) (1) noun “water-vessel” (KALPA), “bucket, vessel” (QL:47)
calpa
- (“k”) (2) vb. “draw water, scoop out, bale out” (KALPA)
calta
- (“k”) vb. “shine” (KAL)
calwa
(“k”) adj. “beautiful” (LT1:254)
calya
- (“k”) vb. “illuminate” (KAL, VT45:18)
cam
- vb. “receive” (attested in the past tense #qq:camne with pronominal endings added: qq:camnelyes “you received it”) (VT47:21)
cáma
noun “guilt, responsibility” (QL:43)
camba
noun “the whole hand, but as flexed, with fingers more or less closed, cupped, in the attitude of receiving or holding” (VT47:7)
cambe
noun (“k”) “hollow (of hand)” (KAB). In the deleted first version of the entry KAB, this word was glossed “closed hand” (VT45:18). Cambeya (“k”) colloquial Quenya for “his hand” (the formally correct form being *camberya) (VT49:17)
camta
- (“k”) vb. “to (make) fit; to fit, accommodate” (VT44:14; the cluster mt seems unusual for Quenya, and it is not explicitly stated in the source that this is a Quenya word. Cf. PE17:91, where mt is shown to become nt in Quenya words.)
can- (1)
(prefix) (“k”) “four” (KÁNAT)
*can- (2)
vb. “command, order” (give an order) or (with things as object) “demand” (PM:361-362; where various derivatives of the stem KAN- are listed; the verb *can- is not directly cited, but seems implied by the statement “in Quenya the sense command had become the usual one”. The undefined verb canya- listed elsewhere [PE17:113] may also be taken as the actual verbal derivative that Tolkien here refers to.)
cana
, see ca
Canafinwe
masc. name “strong-voiced or ?commanding Finwe”; his Sindarin name was Maglor (see Macalaure). Short Quenya name Cáno. (PM:352)
canaque
(“k, kw”) cardinal “fourteen” (VT48:21).The spelling “kanakwe” occurring in the primary source could suggest that this is really a Common Eldarin form; if so, one could theorize that the Quenya form would be *canque with syncope of the middle vowel (the same source lists “minikwe” as a word for 11, and the Quenya form is known to be minque rather than minique). On the other hand, in the same source “tolokwe” as a word for 18 is listed together with definite Quenya forms and is apparently an unorthodox spelling of *toloque (as observed by the editor): Here no syncope producing *tolque occurs.
canasta
(“k”) fraction “one fourth” (1/4). Also cansat, casta (VT48:11)
cáne
(“k”) noun “valour” (KAN)
cáno
(“k”) noun “commander”, usually as the title of a lesser chief, especially one acting as the deputy of one higher in rank (PM:345, SA:káno – PM:362 indicates that cáno originially meant “crier, herald”); “ruler, governor, chieftain” (UT:400), “leader” (PE17:113). Masc. name Cáno, see Canafinwe. The word cáno (“k”) also occurred in the Etymologies with the gloss “chief”, but Tolkien changed it to cáne “valour” (VT45:19).
cansat
(“k”) fraction “one fourth” (1/4). Also canasta, casta (VT48:11)
canta (1)
(“k”) cardinal “four” (KÁNAT, VT42:24, VT48:6). In the Etymologies as printed in LR, this word was cited with a final hyphen (as if it were a verb), but the hyphen does not actually appear in Tolkien's manuscript (VT45:19). Ordinal cantea (“k”) “fourth” (VT42:25) Compare cantil.
canta (2)
(“k”) noun “shape” (PE17:175), also used as adj. “shaped”, also as quasi-suffix -canta (“k”) ”-shaped“ (KAT)
canta- (3)
an undefined verb (?) cited in PE17:113. See canya- #2.
cantea
(“k”) ordinal “fourth” (VT42:25)
cantil
(“k”) noun “fourth finger” (VT47:26)]
canuva
(“k”) “leaden” (LT1:268; if this “Qenya” word is used in a LotR-style Quenya context, it must not be confused with the future tense of can-)
canwa (1)
noun “announcement, order” (PM:362)
canwa (2)
noun “face”, isolated from canwarya (“k”) *”his face”, evidently an ephemeral form Tolkien abandoned in favour of cendele, q.v. (VT49:21; see VT49:34 regarding uncertainties as to the manuscript reading)
canwe
, see #caw-
canya (1)
(“k”) adj. “bold” (KAN).
canya- (2)
verb (pa.t. canyane given), undefined form occurring in PE17:113 (together with the seeming variant canta-). See *can- #2 for a conjecture regarding its meaning.
cap
- (“k”) vb. “jump, leap”, pa.t. campe (QL:45, PE16:134)
capta
- (“k”) vb. “startle”, pa.t. cápe (QL:45)
capalinda
(“k”) noun “spring of water” (LT1:257; ehtele may be preferred in LotR-style Quenya)
cár
(“k”) noun “head” (KAS). The given stem-form appears doubtful within the phonological framework of LotR-style Quenya. Probably we should read cas with stem car- (PE14:69 indeed reads “kas ‘head’, pl. kari”, and VT49:17 quotes the sg. “kas” from a post-LotR source). Compare other forms found in late sources: hlas “ear” with stem hlar- (PE17:62) and olos “dream”, pl. olori (UT:396). In Tolkien’s early “Qenya”, post-vocalic -s became -r at the end of words but was preserved when another vowel followed. His later scheme either lets -r appear in both positions, or reverses the scenario altogether (hence olos, olor-). It would seem that the forms cár, cas- were distractedly carried over into the Etymologies from the Qenya Lexicon (kar, kas-, QL:45) even though they presuppose an earlier version of the phonology. An apparent variant form in late material, cára from earlier cáza (“k”), however fits the later phonology since intervocalic s would become z > r (PE17:188).
car- (1)
vb. “make, do, build, form” (1st pers. aorist carin “I make, build”; the aorist is listed with all pronominal endings in VT49:16, also in pl. and dual forms carir, carit). Regarding the form carize- (PE17:128), see -s #1. Pa.t. carne (KAR, PE17:74, 144). The infinitival aorist stem care (“k”) (by Patrick Wynne called a “general aorist infinitive” in VT49:34) occurs in ece nin care sa “I can do it” (VT49:34), also in áva care “don't do it” (WJ:371) and uin care (PE17:68); in the last example Tolkien calls care an example of the “simplest aorist infinitive”, the same source referring to carie as the “general infinitive” of the same verb. Pl. aorist carir “form” in the phrase i carir quettar (“k”) “those who form words” (WJ:391, cf. VT49:16), continuative cára, future caruva (PE17:144), carita (“k”), infinitive/gerund “to do” or “doing” (VT42:33), with suffixes caritas “to do it” or “doing it”, caritalya(s) “your doing (it)” in VT41:13,17, VT42:33. Past participle #carna, q.v.; VT43:15 also gives the long form carina (“k”), read perhaps *cárina. (Carima as a passive participle may be a mistake, VT43:15.) PE17:68 refers to a “simple past passive participle” of the form carinwa (“kari-nwa”). “Rare” past participle active (?) cárienwa (“k”) *”having done” (PE17:68), unless this is also a kind of passive participle (the wording of the source is unclear). Some alternative forms in Fíriel's Song: past tense cáre (“káre”) “made”; this may still be an alternative to the better-attested form carne (LR:362) even in LotR-style Quenya. Cf. ohtacáre “war-made”, made war (see #ohtacar-). Also *cárie with various suffixes: cárier (“kárier”) is translated “they made”; in LotR-style Quenya this could be seen as an augmentless perfect, hence *”they have made“, “they” being simply the plural ending -r. The literal meaning of cárielto (“k”) must also be *”they made“ (cf. -lto). – Derived adjectives urcárima and urcarne “hard to make / do”, urucarin “made with difficulty” (PE17:154), saucarya “evil-doing” (PE17:68).
car- (2)
prep. “with” (carelye “with thee”), prepositional element (evidently an ephemeral form abandoned by Tolkien) (VT43:29)
car (3)
(“k”) noun “deed” (rewritten >) “building, house” (KAR). Cf. carda.
carampe
pa.t. of carpa-, q.v.
carasse
noun “a built fort or dwelling surrounded by bulwarks” (PE17:84)
carasta
- vb. “build” (PE17:84)
cari
pl. noun “heads”; see cár
caraxe
(“k, ks”) noun “jagged hedge of spikes”; compare Helcaraxe (KARAK)
carca
noun “tooth” (KARAK) or “fang” (SA:carak-). In a deleted version of the entry in question, the glosses were “tooth, spike, peak” (VT45:19). When referring to a normal tooth, not necessarily sharp, the word nelet is probably to be preferred. – Cf. also pl. carcar (“karkar”) in Markirya, there translated “rocks”, evidently referring to sharp rocks. Already the early “Qenya Lexicon” has carca (“k”) “fang, tooth, tusk” (LT2:344). Collective carcane, q.v.
carcane
(“k”) noun “row of teeth” (KARAK; this may be a misreading for *carcare). In early “Qenya”, carcane meant “snarling”, adj. (MC:213)
carcaras
, carcasse (“k”) noun “row of spikes or teeth” (LT2:344 - Tolkien's later Quenya has carcane [read ?carcare], but these words, especially carcasse, may still be valid)
carco
(“k”) noun “crow” (KARKA)] (Changed by Tolkien to corco.)
carda
noun “deed” (PE17:51). Cf. car #3. The word may contain the ending -da (q.v.) denoting the result of the corresponding verbal action.
carma (1)
noun “tool, weapon” (PE17:114)
carma (2)
noun “helm” (helmet) in Carma-cundo (“k”) “Helm-guardian” (PM:260). Notice that in PE17:114, Tolkien indicated that he rather wanted carma to mean “tool” or “weapon”, leaving the status of carma “helmet” uncertain. Possibly shortened to -car in the names Eldacar (Elfhelm?), Hallacar (Tall-helm?) Cf. also cassa in Etym.
Carme
(“k”) noun “art” (UT:459); used = “structure” in sundocarme (“k”) “Base-structure”, q.v. under sundo.
carna
passive participle *”built, made“ in Vincarna “newly-made” (MR:408), also struck-out alacarna “well-done, well-made” (PE17:172). Carna would seem to be the passive participle of car-, though a longer form carina (read *cárina?) is also attested (VT43:15).
carne
adj. “red”, “scarlet, red” (SA:caran, PE17:154, MC:214, KARÁN - spelt with a k in the two latter sources), not to be confused with the past tense of car- “do, make”. Stem carni- as in Carnimírie, Carnistir.
carneambarai
(“k”) “red-???” (Narqelion; very early “Qenya”)
carnevaite
(“k”) noun “red sky” (MC:221; this is “Qenya”)
carnevalinar
(“k”) “red-???” (Narqelion; very early “Qenya”)
Carnil
(“k”) name of a star (or planet), identified with Mars (MR:435)
carni-mírea
adj. “red-jewelled” (PE17:83), whence the name Carnimírie ”[one] having red gems, Red-jewelled“, the rowan-tree in Quickbeam's song (LotR2:III ch. 4, SA:caran, PE17:83), also translated “with adornment of red jewels” (Letters:224; where the reading “carnemírie” occurs)
Carnistir
masc. name “red-face”, mother-name (never used in narrative) of Morifinwe = Caranthir (PM:353)
cáro
] (“k”) noun “doer, actor, agent” (KAR; replaced by tyaro). In the Etymologies as printed in LR, the accent of the word qq:cáro was omitted (VT45:19).
carpa
(“k”) (1) noun “mouth”, including lips, teeth, tongue etc. (PE17:126); also used for “language”, in particular the phonetic system. Cf. náva and páva.
carpa
- (“k”) (2) intransitive vb. “talk, speak, use tongue” (pa.t. carampe given). (PE17:126)
carpasse
noun ”mouth-system”, i.e. ”full organized language, including system, vocabulary, metre etc.” (PE17:126); probably replaced by pahta (2), q.v.
carrea
noun “tressure” (net for confining the hair). (VT42:12)
carva
noun “womb” (isolated from qq:carvalyo “of thy womb”) (VT43:31; Tolkien seems to have abandoned this form in favour of #móna, q.v.)
cas
“head” (VT49:17), cf. also deleted [cas] (“k”) noun “top, summit” (VT45:19). This noun should evidently have the stem-form car-. See cár.
Casar
(“k”) noun “Dwarf”, pl. Casari or Casári, partitive plural Casalli. Adapted from Dwarvish Khazâd. Casarrondo place-name “Khazad-dûm”, Moria (WJ:388, 389; pl. Casári also in WJ:402)
cassa
(“k”) noun “helmet” (KAS; though spelt cassa also in the Etymologies as printed in LR, VT45:19 indicates that Tolkien's own spelling was kassa). Cf. carma in a later source.
cast
] (“k”), fraction “one tenth”, but the form is apparently obsolete; see caista. (VT48:11)
casta (1)
(“k”) fraction “one fourth” (1/4). Also canasta, cansat (VT48:11)
casta (2)
noun “cause” (reason) (QL:43)
Castamir
masc. name, ”casta[?]-jewel“ (Appendix A)
castol
noun “helmet”, synonyms tholon (q.v.), sól (q.v), also variant qq:castolo (“k”) (PE17:186, 188)
cata
, see ca
cauca
(“k”) adj. “crooked” (LT1:257; cf. #caw-)
cauco
(“k”) noun “humpback” (LT1:257)
cauma
(”k”) noun ”protection or shelter natural or otherwise, sc. against sun, or rain, or wind – or against darts; shield” (PE17:108)
caure
(“k”) noun “fear” (LT1:257)
caurea
(“k”) adj. “timid” (LT1:257)
cautáron
(“k”) adj.? “bent” (MC:216; this is “Qenya”)
cav
-, see #caw-
caw
- vb. “bow” (“k”) (1st pers aorist cawin “I bow”) (LT1:257; cf. cauca, cauco). In Tolkien's later Quenya, a verbal stem with w in this position does not seem to fit the general phonology well; intervocalic w would become v. We should perhaps read *cav- whereever the second consonant of the root follows a vowel, but the nasal-infixed past tense could be *canwe with the original quality of the consonant preserved. (Compare such a past tense form as anwe, q.v.) However, Tolkien’s later verb luhta- may be preferred for intransitive “bow”.
cca
(“k”) ?“your”, apparently an abandoned 2nd person plural or dual possessive (VT49:49). Compare -lca.]
(“k”), also ce (“k”) “may be” (VT49:19, 27), particle indicating uncertainty (VT42:34; ce in Bill Welden's note is a misspelling, VT44:38, but the short form ce does occur in other texts, cf. VT49:18-19). In VT42, Welden wrote that Tolkien altered to kwí (or kwíta, q.v.), but Welden later noted that “it does not follow that because the form was changed in another sentence it would necessarily have been corrected in the examples cited” (VT44:38). So qq:cé/ may still be a conceptually valid form. (The forms in kw- rather than qu- seem abnormal for Quenya, at least as far as spelling is concerned.) In another conceptual phase, qq:cé was also used = “if” (VT49:19), but this conjunction appears as qui elsewhere. Examples of qq:cé, ce meaning “if” (said to be “usually [used] with aorist”) include qq:cé mo quete ulca (“k”, “q”) *”if one speaks evil”, qq:cé tulis, nauvan tanome (“k”) *”if (s)he comes, I will be there” (VT49:19), qq:cé mo… *“if one…”, ce formenna *“if northwards” (VT49:26)
cea
, qq:cean (“k”) cardinal “ten”, forms Tolkien later abandoned in favour of quain or quean. An adjectival form caina (“k”) was also listed, but must likewise be considered obsolete. (VT48:12-13, VT49:54)]
cea
(k”), caire noun ?“fence” (PE17:101); or numeral “ten”? The source is obscure; cf. qq:cea above.
cectele
noun “fountain” (LT1:257, LT2:338. In LotR-style Quenya rather ehtele.)
Celec-orna
noun “Swift-tall”, Quenya form of Celegorn (PE17:112)
celma
(“k”) noun “channel” (KEL)
celu
(“k”) noun “stream” (LT1:257; rather celume in LotR-style Quenya)
celume
(“k”) noun “stream, flow” (KEL, LT1:257); locative pl. celumessen (“k”) in Markirya (ear-celumessen is translated “in the flowing sea”, lit. *”in sea-streams“).
celusindi
(“k”) noun “river” (LT1:257; hardly a valid word in Tolkien's later Quenya, where the terms síre and sirya appear instead)
celusse
(“k”) noun “freshet, water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring” (UT:426, VT49:30)
celvar
(“k”) noun “animals, living things that move” (Silm)
cemen
(spelt “kemen” in some sources, “cemen” in others) noun “earth” (VT44:34), Cemenye (“k”) “and Earth” (VT47:11). Cemen refers to the earth as a flat floor beneath menel, the heavens (SA:kemen); “soil, earth” (KEM, LT1:257). At one stage, Tolkien intended cemen to be the genitive of cén; later cemen became the nominative, and the status of cén is uncertain. See Kementári. Locative cemesse, cemenze (really spelt with c rather than k in one version, but also kemenze) in the Quenya Lord's Prayer; later changed to kemende, cemende (VT43:17)
cemenáro
, see cemnaro]
Cemendur
masc. name *”Earth-servant“ (i.e. farmer?) (Appendix A, UT:210)
cemi
noun “earth, soil, land”; Cémi (“k”) “Mother Earth” (LT1:257; the “Qenya” word cemi would correspond to cemen in LotR-style Quenya)
cemina
(“k”), see cemna
cemna
(“k”) adj. “of earth, earthen” (In Etym as printed in LR:363 s.v. KEM, this word is cited as cemina, but according to VT45:19 Tolkien's manuscript actually reads qq:cemna.)
cemnaro
(“k”) noun “potter” (TAN). First written as cemenáro (VT45:19).
cén
(“k”) noun “soil, earth”; see cemen (KEM)
cen
- (“k”) vb. “see, behold”, future tense cenuva (“kenuva”) “shall see” in Markirya. Imperative cena (“k”), VT47:31. Also #cen = noun “sight” as the final element of some nouns (*apacen, tercen, q.v.) Compare the root KHEN-, KEN-, KYEN- “look at, see, observe, direct gaze” (VT45:21)
cenai
(“k”) conj. “if it be that” (VT49:19). This word presupposes ce = “if”; other sources rather make qui the word for “if”, whereas ce or is used = “maybe”.
cenasit
, canasta (“k”) adv. “if it be so, may be, perhaps” (VT49:19). Compare cenai.
cenda
- vb. “watch” (not “guard”, but observe to gain information), also used = “read”. Cenda = also noun “reading”, as in sanweqq:cenda “thought-inspection, thought-reading”. (VT41:5, PE17:156)
cende
noun ”point” (PE16:96)
cendele
noun “face” (VT49:21)
cenima
(“k”) adj. “visible” (PE17:175); cf. cen- “see”. Read possibly *cénima; see -ima and cf. hraicénima “scarcely visible” (PE17:154).
centa
noun “communication, enquiry, *essay”; Ósanwe-centa (“k”) “Communication of Thought”, an appendix to Pengolodh's Lammas or “Account of Tongues” (VT39:23, MR:415); cf. also essecenta, q.v.
centano
(“k”) noun “potter” (TAN, VT45:19)
Cermie
noun seventh month of the year, “July” (Appendix D)
certa
noun “rune” (pl. certar given), adapted from Sindarin certh (a “true” or inherited Quenya form of primitive ¤kirtē would have been *cirte, but this word did not occur). (WJ:396)
ces-
(“k”), “to search (for something), to examine (something) in order to find (something)”; the root meaning is given as “enquire of, question, examine” (something). Cese parma “to look in a book” (for a passage or information required); here the aorist stem cese is used as infinitive. Notice that ces- here takes a simple direct object parma (not locative *parmasse, despite the translation). Past tense cense (Þ) given, replacing the phonologically expected form cente (also cited). (PE17:156)
cesta
- (“k”) vb. “to seek, search for” (PE17:156)
ceula
, see quea
ceule
(k), probably noun *”renewal“ (VT48:8)
ceura
(“k”), probably adj. “renewed” (VT48:8). Also in the form ceure (VT48:7), but qq:ceura seems to be the form that would fit Tolkien's general principles best: there are many adjectives in -ra, whereas forms in -re would normally be taken to be the plural form of such adjectives.
ceuran
- (“k”) noun “new moon” (compare Rána “moon”). The word is cited with a final hyphen, as if some final element is missing, but Rána could very well be reduced to -ran at the end of a compound. (VT48:7)
ceuranar
(“k”) noun “new sun after solstice” (VT48:7), apparently a compound ceura or ceure + anar, q.v.
ceure
(“k”) adj. “renewed” (emended from a noun ceura “renewal”) (VT48:7). See ceura and compare ceuranar.
ceuta-
(“k”) vb. “renew, refresh” (VT48:7, 8)
céva
(“k”) adj. “fresh, new” (VT48:7, 8)
cilde
(“k”) pa.t. vb.? *”saw“ (???) The phrase úri kilde hísen níe nienaite is translated “the Sun with wet eyes dropped tears of mist”, literally perhaps something like *”the Sun saw (through) misty tears tearfully“??? (MC:221; this is “Qenya”; cf. cildo)
cildo
vb. “one saw” (MC:220; this is “Qenya”; cf. cilde, ciluva)
cilin
noun “glass” (“often used as in English (“often used as in English for any thing or implement made of glass”) (PE17:37). Compare calca, hyelle.
cilintilla
or cilintír noun “looking-glass” (i.e. mirror?) (PE17:37)
cilinyul
noun “drinking-vessel” (made of glass) (PE17:37)
cilme
noun “choosing” (isolated from Essecilme “name-choosing”, q.v.) (MR:214); also in #cilmesse pl. cilmessi (“k”) “self-names”, literally names of personal choice (PM:339) (cilme + essi, hence *”choice-names“).
ciluva
vb. “shall see” (MC:213, 214; this is “Qenya”)
cilya
noun “chasm”, allative cilyanna (“k”) “in-Chasm” (sc. “into [the] chasm”) (LR:47, 56). In MR:471, cilya is defined as “cleft, gorge”. Spelt kilya in Etym, there defined as “cleft, pass between hills, gorge” (KIL)
cim
- vb. “heed” (GL:39)
cinta
adj. “small” (PE17:157)
cir
-, see círa
círa
(“k”) vb. “sail” (apparently the continuative stem of #cir-) (Markirya)
circa
(“k”) noun “sickle” (KIRIK)
círier
(“k”) pa.t. vb. “clove” (MC:216; this is “Qenya”)
cirinci
(“k”), sg. *cirince, noun: a species of birds, “no bigger than wrens, but all scarlet, with piping voices on the edge of human hearing” (UT:169). The word seems to incorporate the diminutive ending -ince.
ciris
(“k”) noun “cleft, crack” (LT2:337 - obsoleted by cirisse?)
cirisse
(“k”) noun “slash, gash” (KIRIS; the glosses “cleft” and maybe ?”crevasse“ occurred in deleted material, VT45:23)
cirte
see certa
cirya
noun “ship” (MC:213, 214, 220, 221), ”(sharp-prowed) ship“ (SA:kir-, where the word is misspelt círya with a long í; Christopher Tolkien probably confused it with the first element of the Sindarin name Círdan. It seems that Círyon, the name of Isildur's son, is likewise misspelt; read Ciryon as in the index and the main text of the Silmarillion. Cf. also kirya in Etym, stem KIR.) Also in Markirya. In the Plotz letter, cirya is inflected for all cases except plural possessive (*ciryaiva). The curious dual form ciriat occurs in Letters:427, whereas Plotz gives the expected form ciryat. Locative ciryasse “upon a ship” (MC:216). Compounded in ciryaquen “shipman, sailor” (WJ:372), also ciryando (PE17:58), cf. also ciryamo “mariner” (UT:8). Masc. names Ciryaher *”Ship-lord“ (Appendix A), Ciryandil *”Ship-friend“ (Appendix A), Ciryatan *”Ship-builder“ (Appendix A), also Tar-Ciryatan, name of a Númenórean king, “King Shipbuilder” (SA:kir-)
ciryamo
noun “mariner”, nominative and genitive are identical since the noun already ends in -o, cf. Indis i-Ciryamo “the Mariner's Wife” (UT:8)
ciryando
(“k”) noun “sailor” (PE17:58).
ciryaquen
(“k”) “shipman, sailor” (WJ:372)
cíta
- (“k”) vb. “suppose”, cited in the 1st pers. aorist: qq:cítan “I suppose” (VT49:19)
coa
(“köa”) noun “house” (VT47:35, with etymology); coarya “his house” (WJ:369), allative coaryanna (“k”) “to/at his house” (VT49:23, 35), quenderinwe coar (“koar”) “Elvish bodies” (PE17:175). Notice how coa “house” is here used metaphorically = “body”, as also in the compound coacalina “light of the house” (a metaphor for the soul [fea] dwelling inside the body [hroa]) (MR:250)
coi
(“k”) “life” (LT1:257; in Tolkien's later Quenya cuile)
coace
, see quáce]
coimas
noun “life-bread” = Sindarin lembas (SA:cuivie, PM:395); coimas Eldaron “the coimas of the Eldar” (PM:395)
coina
(“k”) adj. “alive” (LT1:257; Tolkien's later Quenya also has cuina, though coina may still be a valid word: properly, the root of words for “life” is coi- rather than cui-, the latter referring to “awakening” instead)
coire
noun “stirring”, in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of 54 days (Appendix D), but translated “the first day of Spring” in the Silmarillion Appendix (SA:cuivie). Early “Qenya” has qq:coire (“k”) “life” (LT1:257; in Tolkien's later Quenya, the word for “life” is cuile or coivie; however, cf. the adj. qq:coirea from a late source).
coirea
adj. “living” (glossed “alive” in LT1:257); coirea quenya “living speech” (PM:399, VT49:42)
coite
noun “living being” (LT1:257)
coiva
adj. “awake” (LT1:257 - read *cuiva in LotR-style Quenya? Cf. coivie becoming cuivie. On the other hand, the elements cui- and coi- having to do with life and awakening cannot be wholly separated.
coivie
noun “life” (coivierya, *“his/her life”, VT49:41, 42). In early material, the word is glossed “awakening” instead (LT1:257; in LotR-style Quenya cuivie, as in Cuiviénen)
Coivienéni
place-name, “Qenya” form of Cuiviénen, the Waters of Awakening (VT14:5)
col
- vb. “bear, carry”, not attested by itself by suggested by qq:colindo and qq:colla, q.v.; also compare Tanqq:col.
colca
(“k”) noun “box” (QL:47)
colindo
noun “bearer”, pl. #colindor in cormacolindor “ring-bearers” (q.v.)
colla
passive participle “borne, worn” (compare #col- “bear”); also used as a noun = “vestment, cloak” (MR:385). Variant form collo “cloak” (SA:thin(d) ) in the name Sindicollo (q.v.), sc. colla with a masculine ending.
colma
(“k”) noun “ring (on finger)” (VT45:23). See corma.]
cólo
(“k”) noun “burden” (VT39:10)
combe
(“k”) noun “gathering, assembly, assemblage, collection”. Also oqq:combe (PE17:158)
comya
- (“k”) vb. “gather, assemble” (transitive) (PE17:158)
condo
(“k”) noun “prince, leader; lord” (PE17:113,117); possibly replaces cundu, q.v.
cópa
] (“k”) noun “harbour, bay” (KOP; changed to hópa, KHOP). Early “Qenya” likewise has qq:cópa (also qq:cópas) (“k”) “harbour” (LT1:257).
coranar
noun “sun-round”, solar year (Appendix D; pl. coranári in PM:126)
corco
(“k”) noun “crow” (KORKA, see KARKA)
corda
(“k”) noun “temple” (LT1:257)
cordon
(“k”) noun “idol” (LT1:257)
corima
(“k”) adj. “round” (LT1:257; rather corna in Tolkien's later Quenya)
corin
(“k”) noun “circular enclosure” (KOR). In the early “Qenya Lexicon”, this word was defined as “a circular enclosure, especially on a hill-top” (LT1:257). (Con-)alcorin (“k”) *“blessed garth (in the centre)” (VT27:20, 23, 24)
Corlaire
(“k”), place-name, apparently shortened from Corollaire, Coron Oiolaire (MR:107)
corma
noun “ring”, isolated from #cormacolindo “Ring-bearer”, pl. cormacolindor (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308); Cormare “Ringday”, a festival held on Yavannie 30 in honour of Frodo Baggins (Appendix D)
corme
(“k”) noun *“circular enclosure, garth”, or possibly *mound“ (VT27:20, 24, 25)
cormen
(“k”) noun literally *”a round(ed) place“ = *”circular enclosure“ or *”mound“ (VT27:20, 24, 25)
corna
(“k”) adj. “round, globed” (KOR)
corne
(“k”) noun “loaf” (LT1:257)
Coroloisi
] (“k”), noun: possibly an empheral name of the Elves “not of Kor” in the Blessed Realm. Tolkien changed this plural from Coroloiti (VT45:29). It is not quite clear what the intended singular is.
Corollaire
(“Korollaire”), place-name; see Coron Oiolaire.
Corolóra
] (“k”), possibly a synonym of Ilcorin, q.v. (VT45:29)
coromindo
(“k”) noun “cupola, dome” (KOR)
coron (1)
noun “mound” (SA); Coron Oiolaire (“Koron”), place-name: the “Mound of Eversummer” where the Two Trees grew. Also contracted Corollaire (WJ:401) and Corlaire (MR:107); both are spelt with an initial k in the sources.
coron (2)
(“k”) (corn-, as in dat. sg. cornen) noun “globe, ball” (KOR)
Cosmoco
(“k”) masc. name “Gothmog” (LT2:344)
cos
noun “the quarrel, dispute, the matter discussed, legal action” (QL:48). Cf. costa-.
costa
- (“k”) vb. “quarrel” (KOT > KOTH)
cotto
(“k”) noun “enemy”, isolated from Moriqq:cotto “Dark Enemy”, a Quenya form of Morgoth (VT49:25). Compare cotumo, *notto.
cotumo
(“k”) noun “enemy” (KOT > KOTH)
cotya
(“k”) adj. “hostile” (KOT > KOTH)
(“k”) noun “arch, crescent” (KU3); “crescent Moon” (LT1:271; the long vowel was denoted by a circumflex rather than an accent in the early “Qenya” lexicon). In Sindarin, the same word can be used for a “bow” as used to shoot arrows (but possibly this is only quinga in Quenya).
cua
, see cucua
cucua
(“k”) noun “dove” (KŪ; in the Etymologies as printed in LR, Tolkien's manuscript was misread as two distinct words cu and cua; see VT45:24. According to the same source, an ephemeral word for “dove” was indeed cua, but Tolkien changed it to cucua.)
cuile
(“k”) noun “life, being alive” (KUY)
cuina
(“k”) adj. “alive” (KUY). See coina.
cuiva
see coiva
cuive
(“k”) noun “awakening” (KUY)
cuivea
(“k”) adj. “wakening” (KUY).
cuivie
noun “awakening” (early “Qenya” coivie, q.v., but this word Tolkien later used = *“life”). In Cuiviénen, “Water of Awakening” (SA:qq:cuivie, SA:nen, KUY; spelt with a k in the Etymologies). Somewhat surprisingly, cuivie is used to mean “life” in cuivie-lancasse (“k”), literally 'on the brink of life' (“of a perilous situation in which one is likely to fall into death”) (VT42:8) The form coivie is used for “life” elsewhere.
culda
(“k”) adj. “flame-coloured, golden-red” (KUL); maybe it can also be translated “scarlet”, since this gloss was listed for the possible “Noldorin”/Sindarin cognate coll (VT45:24), though it was struck out
culina
(“k”) adj. “flame-coloured, golden-red” (KUL; cullina (“k”) in VT45:24 would seem to be a variant)
†cullo
(“k”) noun “red gold” (KUL, VT45:24)
culo
culu (“k”) noun “gold” (substance)] (KUL, VT49:47; the word culu also occurred in early “Qenya” [LT1:258], but in the Etymologies it was struck out; the regular Quenya word for “gold” is apparently malta. In another version, qq:culo meant “flame” [VT45:24], but this is apparently also a word Tolkien abandoned.)
culucalmalínen
noun in instrumental case: “with golden lights” (MC:220; this is “Qenya”)
culuina (1)
adj. “orange” (colour not fruit) (KUL)
culuina (2)
(misread as culuinn in the Etymologies as printed in LR; see VT45:24) adj. “of gold” (KUL; this word was struck out, and culuina became the adjective “orange” instead.)
culuma
noun “orange” (fruit not colour) (KUL)
culumalda
noun: a kind of tree (evidently orange-tree, culuma + alda) (SA:mal-)
Culúrien
another name of Laurelin; apparently derived from the stem KUL- “golden-red” (Silm; LR:365)
culusta
“a gold-coin” (QL:49)
culuvai
meaning unknown (Narqelion)
cúma
(“k”) noun “the Void” (KUM, (GAS) )
cumbe
(“k”) noun “mound, heap” (KUB)
cumna
(“k”) adj. “empty” (KUM)
cúna
(“k”) 1) adj. “bent, curved”, from which is derived 2) cúna- vb. “bend”, occurring with a- prefix (changed by Tolkien from a na-prefix) in Markirya. Here cúna- is intransitive; we do not know whether it can also be transitive “bend”.
cundo
noun “guardian” (PM:260), “lord” (PE17:117)
†cundu
(“k”) noun “prince” (KUNDŪ; the ”“ indicating that this word is poetic or archaic was omitted in the Etymologies as printed in LR; see VT45:24). Cf. condo.
cúne
noun “crescent, bow” (LT1:271). Cf. .
cunta
, also cunya, vb. (or less likely noun) “rule” (PE17:117)
curo
noun “a skillful [?device ­- Tolkien's handwriting was illegible]”. (VT41:10)
curu
noun “skill” in names like Curufinwe (q.v.) and Sindarin Curufin, Curunir. (SA; possibly the same as curo, curu- above – but there was a word curu [“k”] in Tolkien's early “Qenya”, glossed “magic, wizardry” [LT1:269]).
Curufinwe
(so spelt in Silm; “Kurufinwe” in PM), masc. name *”Skillful Finwe“, a name of Feanor (PM:343); also the origin of the Sindarin name Curufin; Feanor named his favourite son after himself. Short Quenya name Curvo. (PM:352)
Curumo
masc. name *”Cunning One“, “Saruman” (UT:401)
curuni
noun “witch” (of the good magic) (LT1:269)
curuvar
noun “wizard” (LT1:269 – but Gandalf, Saruman etc. were istari)
Curvo
, see Curufinwe
curwe
(“k”) noun “craft” (KUR), “skill of the hand” (VT41:10), Curwe (“K”) “technical skill and invention” (PM:360 cf. 344)