VinQuettaParma

The NeoQuenya and NeoSindarin Wiktionary

VinQuettaParma

The NeoQuenya and NeoSindarin Wiktionary


yá (1)
adv.? “formerly”, also postposition (?) “ago” (YA). The form also appears as a variant of the relative pronoun ya, q.v.
yá (2)
conj. “when” in the sentence yá hríve tene, ringa ná “when winter comes, it is cold” (VT49:23). Compare íre #2.
ya (1)
relative pronoun “which, what” (attested in VT43:28, 34 and in the Arctic sentence), with locative suffix in Namárie: see #yasse. According to VT47:21, ya is impersonal, “which” rather than “who(m)” (compare the personal form ye). The dative form yan (q.v.) is however used for “to whom” (rather than “to which”) in one text, indicating that Tolkien did not always distinguish between personal and impersonal forms. In the phrase lúmesse <u>ya</u> [variant: <u></u>] firuvamme, *“in [the] hour <u>that</u> we shall die”, the relative pronoun is not explicitly marked for case and is evidently understood to share the case of the preceding noun (hence not *lúmesse <u>yasse</u>… “in [the] hour <u>in which</u>”…) (VT43:27-28) Presumably, ya has the plural form *yar (e.g. *i nati yar hirnen “the things that/which I found”).
ya (2) or yan
, prep. “as” (VT43:16, probably abandoned in favour of síve)
ya (3) suffix of endearment, attested in Anardilya
as an intimate form of the name Anardil (UT:174, 418), possibly also occurring in atya “dad”, emya “mum” (q.v.) The forms ataryo “daddy” and amilye “mummy” (q.v.) may contain gender-specific variants -yo masc. and -ye fem.
ya (4) pronominal suffix “his” (and probably also “her, its”), said to be used in “colloquial Quenya” (which had redefined the “correct” ending for this meaning, -rya
, to mean “their” because it was associated with the plural ending -r). Hence e.g. cambeya (“k”) “his hand”, yulmaya “his cup” (VT49:17) instead of formally “correct” forms in -rya. The ending -ya was actually ancient, primitive <font size=“1” style=“font-size: 8pt”>¤- being used for “all numbers” in the 3rd person, predating elaborated forms like -rya. It is said that -ya “remained in Quenya” in the case of “old nouns with consonantal stems”, Tolkien listing tál “foot”, cas “head”, nér “man”, sír “river” and macil “sword” as examples. He refers to “the continued existence of such forms as talya ‘his foot’“, that could apparently be used even in “correct” Quenya (VT49:17). In PE17:130, the forms talya “his foot” and macilya (“k”) “his (or their) sword” are mentioned.
ya (5) adjectival ending, as in the word Quenya
“Elvish” itself; when added to a verbal stem it may derive a kind of short active participle, as in melumatya “honey-eating” (mat- “eat”), saucarya “evil-doing” (car- “do”). (PE17:68)
yaht
- see yat (YAK)
yaima
noun “implement” (GL:37)
yaime
noun “wailing”, from which is derived the adjective yaimea “wailing”, pl. yaimie in Markirya
yaimea
adj. “wailing”, pl. yaimie in Markirya
yaisa
noun “steel” (GL:37)
yaiwe
noun “mocking, scorn” (YAY)
yal
- vb. “summon”. In enyalie “to recall” (Notes on CO, UT:317)
yallume
adv.? “at last” (FS)
yalme
noun “clamour” (ÑGAL/ÑGALAM)
yalte
noun “bridge” (GL:37); rather yanta in Tolkien's later Quenya
yalúme
noun “former times” (but the Quenya word is singular) (YA). Cf. yalúmesse.
yalúmea
adj. “olden” (YA)
yalúmesse
noun in locative “once upon a time” (locative form of yalúme) (YA)
yam
- or qq:yama- vb. “shout” (PE16:134, qq:yamin, *”I shout”, QL:105), pa.t. yáme (QL:105)
yáme
adj.? “yawning” (MC:214; cf. the stem YAG in the Etymologies). Not to be confused with the past tense of yam-.
yan
relative pronoun in dative “for/to which” or “for/to whom” (PE16:90, 92, 96). Used for “to whom” in the poem Nieninque; according to the system described elsewhere, which distinguishes personal ye “who” from impersonal ya “which”, “to whom” would be *yen instead. – A wholly distinct ya(n) seems to appear as an ephemeral word for “as” in one version of the Quenya Lord's Prayer; see ya #2 (VT43:16, VT49:18)
yána (1)
adj. “vast, huge; wide” (PE17:99, 115); also yanda, q.v.
yána (2)
noun “holy place, fane, sanctuary” (YAN). Compare ainas in a post-LotR source.
yana
demonstrative “that” (the former) (YA)
yanda
adj. “wide” (PE17:115); variant of yána #1, q.v.
yando
adv. “also” (QL:104)
yanga
- vb. “to yawn” (YAG)
yanta
noun “bridge”, also name of tengwa #35 (Appendix E); in the Etymologies, yanta is defined as “yoke” (YAT)
yantya
- vb. “add, augment” (PE15:68)
yanwe
noun “bridge, joining, isthmus” (YAT, “joining”, VT49:45, 46), changed by Tolkien from yanwa (VT46:22, VT49:34)
yar
inflected relative pronoun “to whom” (MC:215; this may be “Qenya”, but on the other hand both the relative pronoun ya and an allativic ending -r are still valid in Tolkien's later Quenya, cf. mir “into”. Later versions of the text in question however use yan [q.v.], with the common dative ending -n.) Likely, yar could also be the plural form of the relative pronoun ya, q.v.
yár noun “blood” (YAR; the Silmarillion appendix gives serce instead. According to VT46:22, Tolkien introduced yór as a replacement form in the Etymologies itself.)
yára
adj. “ancient, belonging to or descending from former times” (YA); evidently it can also simply mean “old”, since Tolkien used the intensive/superlative form #anyára to describe Elaine Griffiths as his *”oldest“ or *”very old“ friend in a book dedication (see an-).
yáre
noun “former days” (YA)
yárea
adj. “olden” (YA)
yáresse
noun in locative “once upon a time” (locative form of yáre) (YA)
yarra
- noun “growl, snarl” (stem used as participle in Markirya, translated “snarling”)
yaru
noun “gloom, blight” (GL:37)
yasse (1)
relative pronoun in locative “in which”, pl. yassen referring back to a plural noun (relative pronoun ya + locative ending) (Nam, RGEO:66)
yasse (2)
adv. “once upon a time” (YA); writers may rather use yalúmesse or yáresse of similar meaning to avoid confusion with # 1 above.
yat noun “neck” (YAK)
yatta
noun “narrow neck, isthmus” (YAK). In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies, yatta was also the name of tengwa #35, which letter Tolkien would later call yanta instead.
yaule
noun “cat” (PE16:132). Compare meoi.
yav
- vb. “bear fruit” (LT1:273, given in the form qq:yavin and glossed “bears fruit”; this would have to mean “I bear fruit” in Tolkien's later Quenya: 1st pers. sg. aorist)
yáva
, yava see yáve
yávan
noun “harvest, autumn” (LT1:273; in LotR-style Quenya yávie)
Yavanna
, fem. name: Yav-anna, “Fruit-gift” (PE17:93) or “Fruit-giver”, name of a Valie, spouse of Aule, associated especially with plants (YAB, ANA1; cf. yáve)
yavannamíre
noun “Yavanna-jewel”, name of a tree with globed and scarlet fruits (UT:167)
Yavannie
noun, name of the ninth month of the year, “September” (Appendix D, SA:yáve)
Yavannildi
pl. noun “Followers of Yavanna” (sg. #Yavannilde?), Elvish women who knew and kept the secret of the making of coimas (lembas) (PM:404). Apparently Yavanna + hildi.
yáve
noun “fruit” (YAB), cf. Yavanna. Early “Qenya” has yáva (LT1:273); the form yava turns up even in later material (VT43:31)
yávie
noun “autumn” (SA:yáve); “autumn, harvest”, in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of 54 days, but also used without any exact definition (Appendix D). Noun yáviére *”Autumn-day”, a day outside the months in the Steward's Reckoning, inserted between Yavannie and Narquelie (September and October) (Appendix D)
Yávien
fem. name, apparently yáve “fruit” + the feminine ending -ien.
yáwe
noun “ravine, cleft, gulf” (YAG; according to VT46:22, the last gloss should perhaps be read as “gully” instead)
yaxe
noun “milch cow”, also yaxi “cow” (in Tolkien's later Quenya, the latter would probably be a plural) (GL:36)
ye (1) singular personal relative pronoun "who", maybe also object "whom" (plural form i
). Compare the impersonal form ya. Also attested in the genitive and the ablative cases: yeo and yello, both translated “from whom” (though the former would also mean *“whose, of whom”). (VT47:21)
ye (2)
copula “is” (FS, VT46:22); both earlier and later sources rather point to (q.v.) as the copula “is”, so ye may have been an experiment Tolkien later abandoned. Future tense yéva, q.v.
ye (3), also yé
, prep. “as” (VT43:16, struck out; in the text in question Tolkien finally settled on síve, q.v.)]
ye (4) //conj.// "and" as a suffix added to the second of a pair, as Menel Cemenye
“Heaven and Earth” (VT47:30, 31, VT49:25). Other “pairs” are mentioned as examples but not actually translated into Quenya by Tolkien: Sun and Moon (*Anar Isilye), Land and Sea (*Nór Eärye), fire and water (*náre nenye, or *úr nenye).
yé (1)
interjection “lo!” (VT47:31), also occurring in Aragorn's exclamation when he found the sapling of the White Tree. (Compare yéta-.) Also in the ejaculation yé mána (ma) = “what a blessing” or “what a good thing!“ (VT49:41). The more literal meaning would seem to be *“behold the blessing!”
yé (2)
conj.? “what is more”, also yea (VT47:31)
yé (3)
= ye #3, q.v.]
yea
conj.? “what is more”, also (#2) (VT47:31)
yelca
noun ?“sword” - Tolkien's gloss is not certainly legible, and the word was struck out anyway. (VT45:11)]
yelda
] adj. “friendly, dear as friend” (YEL, struck out)
yelde
noun “daughter” (YEL) This word was struck out in Etym, but it may have been restored together with the ending -iel, q.v.
Yelin
noun “winter” (LT1:260; LotR-style Quenya has hríve, and qq:Yelin was probably obsoleted together with the adjective yelwa “cold”, that appears with a different meaning in the Etymologies).
yello (1)
relative pronoun in ablative: “from whom”; see ye #1.
yello (2)
noun “call, shout of triumph” (GYEL); changed by Tolkien from ello.
yelma
, see yelme.
yelme (1)
noun “loathing”. In the Etymologies as printed in LR, entry DYEL, the word appears as yelma, but according to VT45:11 this is a misreading of Tolkien's manuscript. According to VT46:22, yelme briefly appeared as a word for “daughter” (?) ; yelme (2) : noun (not glossed; the etymology may suggest *“friendship”) (YEL, struck out) ; yelta : - vb. “to loathe, abhor” (DYEL, VT45:11) ; yelwa (1) : adj. “loathsome” (DYEL; according to VT45:11, Tolkien changed this word from yelva.) ; yelwa (2) : adj. “cold” (LT1:260 – this “Qenya” word is apparently obsoleted by # 1 above. In LotR-style Quenya, the regular term for “cold” seems to be ringa.) ; yén : noun, Elvish “long year” of 144 solar years, 52,596 days (Nam, Appendix D, E; RGEO:66. Tolkien earlier defined yén as 100 solar years; see PM:126. In the Etymologies, stem YEN, it seems to mean simply “year”, but in the LotR Appendices the word for “year” instead appears as loa or coranar, q.v.) Yénonótie *“reckoning of years” (MR:51). Pl. yéni in Nam and Etym, entry YEN – though the plural form is misread as “yen-” in the printed version of the Etymologies, cf. VT46:23. Yéni pa yéni *”years upon years” (VT44:36). Pl. genitive yénion in yénion yéni “ages of ages” (VT44:36) ; yénie : noun “annal(s)”; Yénie Valinóreo “Annals of Valinor” (MR:200) ; yen : , yende noun “daughter” (YŌ/YON). This word replaced another form, but this form may have been restored; see yelde. In VT45:16, yende is said to refer to a female “agent”, a word changed by Tolkien from yendi, but Tolkien deleted all of this. ; yendi : ] noun “agent” (fem.; masc. [hendo]). The word qq:yendi Tolkien changed to yende before deleting all of this (VT45:16) ; yenya : noun (or adv.?) “last year” (YA) ; yeo : relative pronoun in genitive “from whom” (could also mean *“of whom”); see ye # 1. ; yére : noun *“sexual desire” (VT46:23; the word is not really glossed, but looks like an abstract formation from the stem YER “feel sexual desire”) ; yerna : adj. “old, worn” (GYER) ; yerya : - vb. “to wear (out)”, also intr. “get old” (GYER) ; yesta- (1) : vb. “desire” (YES, VT46:23; the latter source indicates that Tolkien did write yesta- with a final hyphen, indicating that this is “desire” as a verbal stem, not as a noun). ; yesta (2) : noun “beginning” (PE17:120). Also attested in the compound yestare (see below), but cf. esta #2. ; yestare : noun *“beginning-day”, the first day of the year (loa), immediately before the season of tuile (Appendix D, PE17:120) ; Yésus : masc. name “Jesus” (Tolkien's Quenya spelling would seem to be based on the Latin pronunciation of the name) (VT43:31) ; yéta : - vb. “look at” (LT1:262) Compare #1. ; yéva : vb. “will be” (also “there will be”), apparently the future tense of ye (#2). Once translated “is” (íre ilqua yéva nótina, “when all is counted”), but this event belongs to the future; hence literally *“when all will be counted” (FS; VT46:22). In Tolkien's later Quenya, yéva was apparently replaced by nauva. ; yo //conj.// “and”, “often used between //two //items (of any part of speech) that were by nature or custom clearly associated, like the names of spouses (Manwe yo Varda : ), or “sword and sheath” (*macil yo vaine), “bow and arrows” (*quinga yo pilindi), or groups like “Elves and Men” (Eldar yo Fírimor – but contrast eldain a fírimoin [dative forms] in FS, where Tolkien joins the words with a, seemingly simply a variant of the common conjunction ar). – In one source, yo is apparently a preposition “with” (yo hildinyar = *“with my heirs”, SD:56). ; : (“yô”), yond- see yondo. The genitive form of the relative pronoun ya “which” would likely also appear as qq:yó “of which, from which” (for ya-o, cf. “thence” from ta-o). ; yomenie : noun “meeting, gathering” (of three or more coming from different directions) (WJ:407) ; Yón (1) : noun “Son” (VT44:12, 17, referring to Jesus. Tolkien rewrote the text in question. Normally the Quenya word for “son” appears as yondo, which also refers to Jesus in one text.) ; yón (2) : , variant of yonde, q.v. Defined as “a region, any (fairly extensive) region between obstacles such as rivers or mountains” (PE17:43) ; yonda : adj. “wide, roomy, extensive” (PE17:43), also (as alternative form of yonna) glossed “enclosed”, with the latter meaning perhaps intended as the passive participle of the verb yor- ; yonde : noun “any fairly extensive region with well-marked natural bonds (as mountains or rivers)”, occurring as a suffix -qq:yonde, -yon/-ionde, -ion in regional names. (PE17:43). Note: †qq:yonde may also be an (archaic/poetic) past tense of the verb yor-, q.v. ; yondo : noun “son” (YŌ/YON, VT43:37); cf. yonya and the patronymic ending -ion. Early “Qenya” has , yond-, yondo “son” (LT2:342). According to LT2:344, these are poetic words, but yondo seems to be the normal word for “son” in LotR-style Quenya. Yón appears in VT44, 17, but Tolkien rewrote the text in question. In LT2:344, yondo is said to mean “male descendant, usually (great) grandson”, but in Tolkien's later Quenya, yondo means “son”, and the word is so glossed in LT2:342. Dative yondon in VT43:36 (here the “son” in question is Jesus). See also yonya. – At one point, Tolkien rejected the word yondo as “very unsuitable” (for the intended meaning?), but no obvious replacement appeared in his writings (PE17:43), unless the (ephemeral?) form anon (q.v.) is regarded as such. In one source, yondo is also defined as “boy” (PE17:190). ; yonna : adj. (or passive participle) “enclosed”, see yor-. (PE17:43) ; yonwa : noun “fence, border, boundary” (PE17:43) ; yonya : noun with pronominal ending “my son” (evidently short for *yondonya; the form qq:yonya may be used as a form of address only) (LR:61) ; yonyo : noun “son, big boy”. In one version, qq:yonyo was also a term used in children's play for “middle finger” or “middle toe”, but Tolkien may have dropped this notion, deciding to use hanno “brother” as the alternative play-name (VT47:10, 15, VT48:4) ; yor : - vb. “enclose, set bounds to/about” (PE17:43). Past tense yóre, †yonde, perfect oiórie (PE17:43). The forms yonda, yonna “enclosed” may be regarded as the passive participle of this verb. ; yór : noun “blood”; see yár (VT46:22) ; yu- or yú : - prefix “twi-” or “both” (VT45:13, VT46:23, VT48:20; see yuale, yúcale, yurasta below). According to PE14:84, can function independently as the adverb “twice”. ; yuale : noun “twilight” (KAL). Also yúcale. Cf. yúyal. ; yúcale : (“k”) noun “twilight” (KAL, VT45:13). Also yuale. ; yúla : noun “ember, smouldering wood” (YUL) ; yulda : noun “draught, something drunk, a drink, the amount drunk”, pl. yuldar (Nam, PE17:63, 68, RGEO:66). See -da regarding etymology. ; yulma (1) : noun “cup” (Nam, RGEO:67), “drinking-vessel” (WJ:416, PE17:180). The plural form yulmar is attested (VT48:11). Yulmaya (“k”) colloquial Quenya for “his cup” (the formally correct form being *yulmarya) (VT49:17) ; yulma (2) : noun “brand” (YUL). May have been obsoleted by # 1 above. ; yulme (1) : noun “drinking, carousal” (WJ:416) ; yulme (2) : noun “red [?heat]” (the gloss was illegible) (YUL) ; yulu : - vb. “carry” (GL:38; rather #col- in LotR-style Quenya) ; yunce : (“k”) cardinal “twelve”, before it was altered to yunque under the influence of minque “eleven” (according to VT48:7, 8). The form qq:yunce is asterisked by Tolkien. Compare ence under enque. ; yunque : (“q”) cardinal “twelve” (VT47:41, VT48:4, 6, 9; VT49:57; also compare the stem yunuk(w)- cited in VT42:24, 31). This word appears already in an early source (PE14:82). Some sources point to #rasta, q.v., as another word for “twelve”. However, available post-LotR sources indicate that Tolkien intended qq:yunque as the regular Quenya word for “twelve”. ; yunquenta : cardinal “thirteen” (12 and one more) (VT47:15), variant yunquente (VT47:40), compare ente #1. ; yunquesta : fraction “one twelfth” (1/12) (VT48:11) ; yur : - vb. “run” (quoted in form qq:yurin, translated “runs”, but within Tolkien's later framework it looks like a 1st person aorist “I run”) -QL:106 (cf. entry YUR in Etym) ; yurasta : cardinal “24” (two times #rasta “twelve”) (PE14:17) ; yúyal : noun “twilight” (PE17:169); cf. yuale, yúcale, q.v. ; yúyo : noun? adv.? “both” (YŪ, VT48:10). Used adjectivally in yúyo má “both hands”; notice that the noun following yúyo** receives no plural or dual marker.