As discussed in the section on subject suffixes, ancient Quenya pronominal subjects followed the verb, and eventually became an inflectional element in verb formation. The same is true to a lesser degree of pronominal objects. These likewise could become inflections, and there are two examples of this in The Lord of the Rings:
As a general rule, the subject precedes the verb in Quenya: i nér cenne “the man saw”. The biggest exception is when the subject is a pronoun, in which case the pronoun is attached to the verb as a suffix: cennenye “I saw” = cen-ne-nye “see-(past)-I” or “see-(past)-1sg”. This is not strictly speaking subject-verb agreement, a feature of many European languages. The Quenya pronominal subject suffix doesn’t “agree” with the subject, it is the subject.
In PE22:103 Tolkien mentions the Quenya verb lauta- "abound" and goes on saying that it is used impersonally, as in malta launen "gold abounded to me". Is this truly impersonal though, a subjectless verb, like úlo, or luin? Isn't the case simply that here "gold" is the grammatical subject, but the logical subject is "I"1?
Now that Eldamo 0.7.5 is published, I'm restarting the number sequence for this series at P37 to match what is in the data model. The numbering of the old posts don't match what is in Eldamo, so don't worry that P35 and P36 were "skipped".
Quenya uses pronouns as most languages do: for noun replacement with either a participant in the discourse (“I, you, we”) or someone referenced in the discourse (“he, she, they”). Quenya has a set of pronouns similar to English, but makes some distinctions that English does not:
With permission, I'm posting a link to Raccoon's description of the Quenya Definite Article, which is much more detailed than mine:
This file was originally posted in Discord. I wanted to put a copy of this very interesting research into a publicly accessible location to make it less likely it would be lost in the mists of the Internet.
I’ve release Eldamo 0.7.5. This version mostly includes the first part of my analysis of Quenya grammar, but it has some minor data entry from obscure sources and some initial work on semantic categorization of Sindarin/Noldorin/Gnomish words.
For the grammar analysis, see here:
There is no evidence that Tolkien consider monosyllabic nouns as a distinct class in his later writings, but such nouns are more likely to be irregular than other nouns, since they represent more basic concepts. For example, the noun má “hand” does not have a plural form *már or *mái, but uses only the partitive plural máli (VT47/6). Independent pronouns are also generally monosyllabic, so they would be declined like members of this group.