In IRL European languages we see two ways of expressing things like “it is cold”, “it was windy.” etc. (what is the proper name for these expressions in grammarian talk?). In English, German etc. one uses a dummy subject: it is cold; es is kalt; in others, like Polish or Hungarian, no subject is used: zimno jest; hideg van. I am wondering how these would look like in Quenya. I have trawled through the list of early/middle/late Quenya phrases on Eldamo but have not really seen any that fits the bill (there is but it’s really weird). So what do people think these would be expressed? Is it
- ringa náse, the English way, or
- ringa ná, the Slavic/Hungarian etc way (this is where I am leaning, for obvious reasons), or perhaps
- the matter is circumvented by always using a specific subject e.g. i vilya [ná] ringa
In some cases we have impersonal verbs that can be used to describe these conditions e.g. nique or kelya, but I doubt there would be a verb for every possibility.
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